I BW!l|liJ i )i i ) i ,MII ' .l i y!i|l !
Boy-Stuff is the only Stuff ix the World
FROM WHICH Men can be Made
H, W. GIBSON
'Camping fob Boys," '
Worship," "Qualities that Win," etc.
Author of "Camping for Boys," "Services of
New York: 347 Madison Avbnub
COPTKIOHT, 1916, BT
Thb Intkbnational Committee or
YoxTNG Men's Chbistiajj Associations
Printed in the United States of America
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2007 with funding from
Book I. — The Characteristics of Boyhood
I. Physical 8
The thrill of living. Animal vs. man.
The awakening conscience. Decline and
acceleration of growth. The teen period.
Physical health a mental and moral asset.
Bodily cleanliness. Bathing and swimming.
Work and sleep. Food values. Normal
play life. Danger of overtaxation and over-
strain. Sacred power of reproduction.
II. Intellectual 29
The servant of the mind. Thought con-
trol. Sensori-motor system. The boy's ca-
pacity of mental development. Disciplining
imagination. Value of pictures. The power
of suggestion. Time of decision. Will.
Habit. The "ego" period. Doubt and
questioning. Disposition and temperament.
Cultivation of ideals through music, books,
pictures, drama, etc. "Slanguage." The
five senses or "Scouts of the Soul."
III. Emotional 63
"Hurt feelings." Four great types of
temperament. The dominant emotional in-
stincts — fear, aversion toward the strange,
anger, afifection, positive and negative self-
feeling, the sex instinct, inner freedom, the
instinct of eflBciency, sympathy, reverence,
the sense of dependence, surprise, and won-
der. Danger of stifling emotions. The boy
needs an interpreter of his emotions.
IV. Social 82
The hermit or recluse is an abnormal
being. The gang instinct necessary for the
proper social education of every boy. Social
consciousness. Indiscriminate chumship vs.
discriminate chumship. Misfits in society.
A boy's room. The home a social center.
Socializing value of the family meal. Play
as a social adjuster. Camping as a socializ-
ing influence. The recognition of the social
instinct by the Church.
V. Moral 100
The proper field for morals or moral
sentiment is voluntary human action.
Struggle between the higher and lower.
The three classes of control. Aim of moral
instruction is to teach a boy to know, to
live, and to do right. Personality. Moral
law vs. civil law. Syllabus of moral in-
struction for boys, 12 to 14 years, 14 to 16
years, 16 to 19 years. The high art of liv-
ing vs. making a living.
VI. Religious 117
The appeal of religion to a healthy, nor-
mal, happy boy. Religion a motive power
to give up wrong and to do right. A boy's
idea of God and duty and religious observ-
ance. Religious expression. The instinct
of worship. The stages of the evolution of
the religion of boyhood. Jesus Christ as
the world's greatest hero. Conscience.
Conversion. Loyalty to the Church. The
function of worship.
VII. Vocational 137
"What shall a boy do?" is a problem.
Harnessing aptitudes. Fitting a boy to a
calling vs. fitting a calling to a boy. Pre-
venting misfits. The business of education.
Parental personal ambition must often be
sacrificed for the salvation of the boy.
Dabbling in many things. Value of manual
training and technical studies. Danger of
neglecting the cultural. The motive of a
vocation. The spiritualization of work.
Table I. Chabactekistics of Childhood 158
Table II. Charactekistics of Adolescence 162
Book II. — General Characteristics
VIII. Taking His Measure 169
It is the unknowable which has always
baffled man. The grow time. Two skilled
builders — nature and nurture. The con-
tents of a boy. His unpurchasable quality.
A boy's ideal of a friend. Dangerous
"Model" boy. "Penrod." The first pair
of long trousers. His first shave. Exit
mother, enter father. Well governed cities,
eflicient schools, happy homes, vitalized
churches of the future, depend upon the
boys of today. Will they measure up?
IX. The Language of the Fence 185
A piece of chalk in the hands of an evil-
minded boy. Fence language is but the
reflection of the thought life of the boy.
Crimes of manhood begin during boyhood.
The impure joke. Results of 288 inter-
views. Parental cowardice. Brain impres-
sions made through the eye and ear. "Where
did I come from?" Mother the boy's first
teacher. Father's part in his sex education.
Sowing wild oats. Cleaning up the fence.
X. Parental Delinquency 204
Ideals of the city, the state, the nation, the
school, the church, will never rise higher than
the ideals of the home. Intensity of love of
home born in man. "Speeding up" of life.
Parental control. Parental delinquency re-
sponsible for juvenile delinquency. Results
of questionnaire sent to boys. Boy barom-
eters. Homecoming of father. All homeless
boys do not live in the slums. Boys more
valuable than carpets. A real home. The
XI. Skedaddling from Sunday School 223
"Man am I grown." "Skedaddle" means
to run away, to retire tumultuously. Older
boys retiring from Sunday school. Statis-
tics. Millions growing up in America
without definite religious instruction and
needing an anchorage. Too big and too
old to attend. Not a "kid." Childish
songs and "opening" exercises. "Bunch"
don't go. "Hedonists." Appeal of service
demanding sacrifice. Sabbath irreverence.
Modern skepticism. Week-day interests.
XII. Stemming the Tide 236
There is a tide in the affairs of the Sunday
school if — . Testimony of a judge. Result
of questionnaire given to boys. Unprepared-
ness. Danger of producing "half-baked"
teachers. Sunday attendance a habit. The
quality of cheerfulness. "Something to do."
Class activities. Inter-church organiza-
tions. Community competition must be
changed to community cooperation. Sun-
day school changed into a Bible school.
XIII. The Church, the Preacher, the Sermon,
THE Boy 250
A parable. "Morbus Sabbaticus." A
diagnosis and the remedy. Churchless boys
and boyless churches. Seating capacity of
Protestant churches vs. attendance. Fill-
ing the pews a problem. Reasons given by
boys as to why they do not go to church.
Beatitudes for church goers. Instinct of
worship in every human being. "How can
a minister help a boy?" answered by boys.
The kind of sermons boys would preach to
boys if they were ministers. Uniting with
These studies and observations of boy life
formed the material delivered in courses of
lectures on "Boyology" or Boy Analysis, before
the Young Men's Christian Associations of
Boston, Providence, Lawrence, Cambridge, and
at Mothers' Meetings, Parent-Teachers' Associa-
tions, and Women's Clubs, and are now presented
to that larger audience of parents, teachers,
and workers among boys, who are interested in
this intricate piece of human machinery known
as the boy.
Twenty-six years of actual contact with many
thousand boys has convinced the author that
many of the boy's ways remain as yet uninter-
preted as well as misinterpreted. He is the
original sulphite, keeping everybody awake and
interested when he appears upon the scene. He
will ever be a new subject for discussion and
analysis, and in need of friendly interpreters.
May this little volume introduce him to a host
of such friends, who will secure for him the
inahenable rights of boyhood and genuine sym-
pathy dinging the struggles of youth.
No attempt has been made to adhere to
technical or scientific terms, but rather to the
language of those who may be short in psy-
chology, physiology, pedagogy, and sociology,
but who are long in conmion sense and "heart-
Acknowledgment of deepest gratitude is made
to the host of publishers and authors who so
generously permitted the use of quoted material.
*'Out of the mouths of many witnesses, the
truth shall be estabhshed." A bibhography of
helpful books and their publishers will be found
at the end of the book.
Boston, May, 1916.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF
"Oh! The joy of the measured strength!
To run with the fleet, and leap with the supple.
And strive with the strong.
To struggle with friendly foes, and to know at length.
By measuring strength with strength.
Where you stand as a man among men.
To reach with body and soul
For the wreath of bays, and then
To rejoice that the best man wins,
Tho' another be first at the goal.
Oh! Life is sweet."
This description of the physical expression of
boyhood quoted from Justin Stern's "The Song
of the Boy" is a real experience of every normal
boy. Where is the boy who does not feel a
new thrill of living as he competes in the sports
and the games? Plato, the Greek philosopher,
said, "Of all beasts, boys are the most unman-
ageable." To a certain extent this is true, for
when he starts out to be a boy, he is more like
a little beast, and many things that make the
difference between a man and a beast make no
difference with him. He is, though, a man
in the making. We are indebted to medical
science and psychology for a better understand-
ing as to how we may help this animal, as his
awakening conscience gets hold of the task of
controlling him. "The manifold physical hungers
and thirsts of the animal are all in his senses and
they keep all the sources of supply at work, day
and night. Through the wonderful nervous
system, the nexus between him and his body,
by which he expresses himself and initiates his
enterprises, his body is so tied up with the mental
and moral that its health and purity require
the same care as do the finest elements and
essences. His psychical elements are, of course,
the same, in number, as in grown people. Some
of them are in action, some dormant, some
quiescent; some subordinate, while others are in
control — such as love and hatred, hope and fear,
sense of justice, appreciation of the beautiful,
the sublime and the true, and all the powers of
thought and will. But even his most active
powers are immatiu*e and it is sometimes difficult
to distinguish one from another. His power of
observation is awake before that of decision,
his feelings control earlier than his reason, his
reason before his will, and his will before his
"When the clock strikes his tweKth year,
instead of the blind impulses that have been
» Kirtley, "That Boy of Yovirs," p. 2.
controlling him, his will power awakens and
assumes the control of his career." According
to the findings of Professor Tyler, a boy's growth
in weight between ten and twelve declines to
a minimum, the thirteenth year begins a marked
acceleration and lasts about four years, or from
the thirteenth to the seventeenth year. The
same holds good in height and chest develop-
ment. Acceleration begins with the pubertal
period. He now has an awakening. He is some-
times shocked by what he discovers, sometimes
awed, sometimes stricken with fear. If there
is any one time in his life when he needs a guide,
a counselor, and a real friend, it is now. Up to
this time he has been too busy being a boy.
From three to thirteen he is an interrogation
mark, a sort of combination of dirt, noise and
questions, mumps and measles, bumps and
broken bones. It is claimed that "between
eight and twelve, he is fighting for and adopt-
ing his constitution. The rest of the time till
he is twenty-five, he is evidently working out
In the olden days, twelve years of age was
considered the "age of accountability," when a
boy was no longer considered a child, but as
one who had seriously begun his march man-
ward. It was at this age that the boy Jesus
was taken to Jerusalem by his parents. With
all the inquisitiveness of a boy he found his
way to the temple, and puzzled the learned
doctors with his many questions, as many a
twelve-year-old boy has done to this day. The
only record we have of Jesus' boyhood is that
significant statement — "He advanced in wisdom
and stature, and in favor with God and man."
After that come the silent years, the years when
many a boy gets lost in the "storm and stress,"
when his questions are ignored or else silenced
and unanswered. Though he is but a boy, the
instincts of a man are already making them-
selves known, and he seeks information from one
who has been through the same experiences — a
man, naturally his father, but alas! father is
"too busy." How few fathers reaUze that it is
a serious business to start a soul voyaging toward
eternity and then to give up hold on the pilot
wheel when nearing the most dangerous shoals
in the voyage. A boy's questions are a father's
opportunity. **To suppress them is to suppress
him, to direct and answer them is to discipline
and develop him; to do it in the spirit of co-
operation is to enter into a sacred partnership
with him."^ The wise saying of Plato, that
it was **Better to be imborn than untaught; for
ignorance is the root of misfortune," surely is
applicable in modern life as in the days of old.
2 Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 26.
No earthly object is so attractive as a well- ^
built, growing boy. He is truly "fearfully and
wonderfully made." The teen period, John
Keats says, "is the space between the boy and
the man, in which the soul is in ferment, the
character undecided, the way of life uncertain.*'
Shakespeare puts into the mouth of Malvolio
these words concerning this age: "Not yet old
enough for a man, nor young enough for a boy;
as a squash is before 'tis a peas-cod, or a codling
when 'tis almost an apple. "^ He is growing
like the proverbial weed, he seems to be all
legs, he has a painful sensation of awkwardness.
"Up to the age of about fifteen the legs are
growing more rapidly than the trunk. After
fifteen the upper half of the body gains twenty-
five per cent, the lower hardly half as much."*
"By fifteen the brain stops growing. The
large arteries increase one third, the temperature
rises one degree, the reproduction organs have
functioned, the voice deepens, the stature grows
by bounds and the boy needs more sleep and
food than ever before."^ His heart nearly
doubles in size; at ten the heart weighs 115
grams, at seventeen it weighs 230 grams. The
blood is driven through his veins at double the
* Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 46.
* Tyler, "Growth and Edu-ation," p. 6
6 Forbush, "The Boy Problem," p. 18.
pressure. "Chest girth is at birth nearly two
thirds of the height. At nine it is almost exactly
one half. The ratio diminishes until the thir-
teenth or fourteenth year in the boy. After
this it rises continually, and at twenty should
exceed one half the height.*'® Increased girth
is always a sign of increased power. Increase
of vigor and decrease of sickness is marked at
fourteen and sixteen in the boy, and these years
are marked by a rapid increase in girth. Do
you wonder why this "new man'* is a revolu-
tionist? A new sense of power and self-life calls
out for expression.
"I must, I must: a voice is crying to me
From my soul's depths, and I will follow it."
He seeks out boys who are undergoing sim-
ilar experiences and feelings, a group or gang
is formed for weal or woe, for destructive or
constructive purposes, for worthwhile deeds or
damnable doings. He must find some form of
expression. He is now determining his destiny.
Now is the critical time of his life, for "Buoy-
ancy and hopefulness of youth accompany the
rise in blood pressure. Courage, vitality and
the temperature of the body sink together dur-
ing the hours before dawn. The tides of religious
feeling are at their flood at fourteen and sixteen
" Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 67.
years when the girth and lung capacity have
their accelerated increase."^ To help harness
this energy so that manhood may be conserved,
is the duty as well as the privilege of workers
among boys, for as Herbert says, "No sooner
is a temple built to God, but the Devil builds
a chapel hard by."
"The glory of young men is their strength."
A wise leader will take advantage of the boy's
natural desire for physical struggle and prowess.
Instead of frowning upon his enthusiasm for **
things physical, he will direct it along lines of
wholesome self-knowledge and help him to under-
stand that the things he so much desires may,
if not skilfully controlled and directed, prove
his greatest peril and unmaking. Recreation
does not always re-create. Any form of dis-
sipation is a waste of vital material which will
be needed in some emergency. Physical health
is a mental and moral asset. When Wendell
Phillips started off for college, his mother gave
him this advice, "My son, keep your linen
clean, read your Bible every day, and let plenty
of fresh air into your room." "Conservation of ^
bodily strength through cleanliness and fresh
air, is the first thing needed."^ Therefore a
7 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 201.
8 Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 10.
boy should be taught the value of keeping his
body clean, that it is important for his mental
and moral, as well as physical good, to keep
the nasal passages open, to keep his finger nails
and toe nails trimmed and clean, and to look
after his eyes and ears and especially his throat.
The boy should understand that he has about
1,700 square inches of skin, each square inch
containing about 3,500 sweating tubes, or res-
pirating pores, which must not become clogged
and must be given a chance to breathe. It is
difficult to make a young boy understand that
"cleanliness is next to godliness," for too often
he desires to be neither clean or godly. The
appeal of a strong, healthy, athletic body grips
him quicker than the appeal of moral well being.
The value of bathing should be explained to him
in such a tactful manner as to create within
him a "hankering'* for a bath. To bathe daily
with warm water to keep clean, and to follow
with a quick cold bath and then a vigorous
rub-down will not only increase vitality but do
much to keep clean his thought life. "Cold
bathing sends the blood inward partly by the
cold which contracts the capillaries of the skin
and tissue immediately underlying it, and partly
by the pressure of the water over all the dermal
surface, quickens the activity of kidneys, lungs,
and digestive apparatus, and the reactive glow
is the best possible tonic for dermal circulation.
It is the best of all gymnastics for the involun-
tary muscles and for the heart and blood vessels.
This and the removal of the products of ex-
cretion preserve all the important dermal func-
tions which are so easily and so often impaired
by our modern life, lessen the liability to skin
diseases, and promote freshness of complexion. "•
Swimming is the amusement or sport 'par
excellence among boys. This information was
secured by testing 322 boys in many cities and
towns, through the questionnaire method. They
were requested to check off on a card provided
them, the amusements named which they liked
best and in order of preference. The figures in
front of each line of the chart indicate first,
second, and third choice and the figures at the
end of each line give the number of boys voting
for that particular amusement. Several tests
and studies made with these same boys will
appear in other chapters of this volume, as they
represent a type of boy found in every com-
Swimming 1 B9
Camping 1 57
^ 8 84
•HaU, "Youth," p. 105.
Baseball 1 44
Music 1 87
Football 1 28
Basketball 1 28
Track Athletics 1 26
Gymnasium 1 19
Hiking 1 13
Boating 1 11
Dancing 1 11
Parties 1 9
Theaters 1 8
Movies 1 1
Ages 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 over 20
4 15 68 99 66 34 19 10 7
"Swimming strengthens the lungs, because it
causes deep breathing; it strengthens the nerv-
ous system, because it induces natural sleep;
it strengthens the spine and enlarges the chest,
because it causes the head to be thrown back
and the chest out; it strengthens and sets right
the pelvic organs, because the body is in motion
on the horizontal plane. By the wormhke mo-
tion of the trunk characteristic of swimming,
all the internal viscera are assisted in their nor-
mal functions; hence bowel, liver, and kidney
troubles disappear, and the danger from appendi-
citis is greatly lessened."^^
Sleep, that great mystery, is most important
in the growth of a boy, yet how rebellious he is
when it comes to bed time. To sit up late is
to him a great privilege, and indulgent parents
many times are responsible for the fatigue and
nervous restlessness due to irregularity of sleep.
Without sleep the brain would soon wear out.
Wear and waste always go hand in hand with
activity. Sleep helps to renew and rebuild.
10 Corsan, "At Home in the Water," p. 12.
Warner" thinks the hours of work and sleep
should be as follows:
Hours per week
Hours per night
Between 8- 9
We grow mostly during sleep, for then the
products of nutrition, which during the day
are used in replacing the constant waste of the
system, are employed in building new tissue.
A boy eats and sleeps far more in proportion
than the adult; and this surplus of nutrition is
expended in building up, or growing.
There is a tendency to mouth breathing
among boys which should be corrected early.
'*The boy who sleeps with his mouth open not
only has disturbed sleep but disturbs other
sleepers, and lets the enemy in that dries up
the saliva of the mouth, injures the teeth, dis-
eases the throat and lungs, irritates the nerves,
and racks the brain."^ An Indian warrior sleeps
and hunts and smiles with his mouth shut, and
" Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. I, p. 263.
M Green, "Thoughts for the People," p. 239.
with seeming reluctance opens it even to eat
or to speak. An Indian child is not allowed /
to sleep with its mouth open, from the very first
sleep of its existence; the consequence of which
is, that, while the teeth are forming, they take
their relative natural position, and form that
healthful and pleasing regularity which has se-
cured to the American Indians, as a race, the
most beautiful mouths in the world. The
nostrils were made to breathe through, and
their delicate and fibrous lining is necessary
to remove dust and other foreign substances,
to purify and warm the air in its passage, and
to stand guard over the lungs, especially during
the hours of repose.
Note also that Indian mothers do not swathe ^
their children in tight-fitting and uncomfortable
garments. They do not put on growing feet,
tight-fitting, closely laced shoes, or cover their
heads with unventilated hats. The body is given
every encouragement to grow in a natural
A growing boy, when asked if he could name
the three graces, replied: "Yes, breakfast, dinner,
and supper." Someone has described the boy
as "an appetite with the skin pulled over it.'*
The boy very often sums up life in two words
of three letters each— "F-U-N" and "E-A-T."
Perhaps after all he has the real philosophy of
material existence, for when the real fun of
living begins to wane and our digestive apparatus
refuses to function properly, then we become of
"all men most miserable."
"Growth is a very expensive process, and de-
mands the combustion of a large amount of
nutriment, more than is consumed by active
muscular exercise. . . . The boy needs a liberal
supply of food and oxygen during the periods
of rapid growth or change. Kind and quality
also demand attention. It must be suited to
the needs of the epoch."^^ Atwater tells us that
the boy of fifteen or sixteen requires ninety j>er
cent the food ration of the adult man, engaged
in muscular work. A boy at twelve requires
seventy per cent.
Scientists in making an analysis of the human
body find that it is composed of lime, carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and other
ingredients, and they all go into the body as
food, except what comes in as air, which is
mainly oxygen. It is necessary that they be in
the right proportion. "If he gets too much lime
he runs to bones; or oxygen, he becomes flighty
and fighty; or too much phosphorus into a will
o' the wisp." Most of our diseases are due
in the last analysis to malnutrition or to lack of
" Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 86.
Food has much to do with the boy's mind
and character. Chemical changes in the body,
due to food, are paralleled by changes in his
emotions. The conversion of meat into man, of
food into feeling, is an interesting process worth
studying. "Food becomes blood and blood builds
bones and muscles and nerves and brain tissues
and, from that physical basis, we get power to
think and feel and will and do." "The boy
has a right, then, to have good food and enough of
it and to have the wise oversight of those who
are over him. The values of the food may be
lost by too rapid eating. Haste and nervousness
lead to the galloping style of eating. The boy
may not Fletcherise, but he may be taught to
put himself into his eating, which is next in im-
portance to putting the eatables into himself.
He should chew as long as he can teach himself
to enjoy that particular mouthful. Eating is
an art which he must be taught, as he is taught
the art of painting or bookkeeping or printing
"A sound mind in a sound body" should be
forever the appeal as well as the ideal. Dr.
Hall says "Modern psychology sees in muscles,
organs of expression for all efferent processes. . . .
Muscle culture develops brain centers as nothing
else yet demonstrably does. Muscles are the
1* Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 21.
vehicles of habituation, imitation, obedience, char-
acter, and even of manners and customs. . . .
Skill, endurance, and perseverance may almost
be called muscular virtues; and fatigue, caprice,
languor, restlessness, lack of control and poise,
"Not only is all muscle culture at the same
time brain-building, but a bookworm with soft
hands, tender feet, and tough rump from much
sitting, or an senemic boy prodigy, *in the morn-
ing hectic, in the evening electric,' is a monster.
Play at its best is a school of ethics. It gives not
only strength but courage and confidence, tends
to simplify life and habits, gives energy, deci-
sion, and promptness to the will, brings conso-
lation and i>eace of mind in evil days, is a re-
source in trouble and brings out individuality.*'^*
The normal play life of the boy is a challenge
to the Church. Football, baseball, soccer, and
other similar games may become schools of
mental and moral training. GuHck holds that
the reason why only some seven per cent of
the young men of the country are in the churches,
while most of the members and workers are
women, is that the qualities demanded are the
feminine ones of love, rest, prayer, trust, desire
for fortitude to endure, a sense of atonement —
16 HaU. "Youth," p. 8.
w HaU, "Youth," p. 76.
traits not involving ideals that must stir young
men. The Church is just beginning to appeal
to the more virile qualities, as evidenced in the
Sunday School Athletic and Baseball Leagues.
Avoid unwise competition, which may spur ^
the boy to overtaxation, and overstrain of heart.
"Safety first*' is superseding "take chances" and
the risk of sacrificing any boy for the sake of
the team, or of advertising himself and the
organization which he represents, must be elim-
inated from athletics. "To put a young boy
who is big and strong for his age, with older
boys, who may be no larger, or may be even
smaller, but who are much more strongly *knit'
and thus able to bear physical strain without
harm, may disable the younger boy for life.
We must be aware of the fact that a boy who
has grown very large and strong for his age,
generally has a heart a little small in proportion
to his size — a heart which should be given oppor-
tunity for normal growth, and which should
not be called upon for the great exertion needed
in football or in some of the more wearing track
sports. In this way many boys are injured."^^
No growing boy should be permitted to play
on a football team or engage in track sports
without first undergoing a thorough examination
^ Taylor, "The Physioal Examination and Training of Children/I
by a reputable physician. The goal of athletics
and sports should be: safe, sane, all-round physi-
cal development and fitness, with enough of the
competitive to develop that team work so neces-
sary in later life, courage, self-control, loyalty,
obedience, and, best of all, ability to play an
uphill or losing game, and to smile in the face of
discouragement or defeat.
Teach a boy the seriousness as well as the
foolishness of waste. When one takes in liquor
he wastes that much money, besides the injury
to his body or mind. The very meaning of the
word alcohol is interesting. It is derived from
the Arabic "al-kahol," which means "something
very subtle." Alcohol paralyzes the white blood
corpuscles so that they cannot attack disease.
Professor RosenufF in his investigations discovered
"that one half of the drunkards get the habit
before 21 years of age, and one third before 16
years of age, that about 2,000 men die a day who
are drunkards, and that one out of every four
admitted to insane asylums were brought there
by alcohol." Have the boy read several times
"I am the greatest criminal in history.
I have killed more men than have fallen in all the wars
of the world.
I have turned men into brutes.
I have made millions of homes unhappy.
I have transformed many ambitious youths into hope-
I make smooth the downward path for countless millions.
I destroy the weak and weaken the strong.
I make the wise man a fool and trample the fool into
I ensnare the innocent.
The abandoned wife knows me, the hungry children
The parents whose child has bowed their gray heads in
sorrow know me.
I have ruined millions and shall try to ruin millions more.
— I am Alcohol."
Longfellow well says: "He that drinks wine,
thinks wine, he that drinks beer, thinks beer.'*
Teach the boy that to turn down his glass at
a dinner or banquet is not a sacrifice, but an
evidence of self-mastery, for it is the first glass
and not the last glass that makes the drunkard.
A wine glass is never right side up until it is
Abstinence has a distinct economic value to a
community, as is evidenced in the following
Petrograd, Via London, Sept. 30, 1914—10 p. m.—
Minister of Finance Bark to-day received an order that
the prohibition of the sale of vodka shall be continued
indefinitely after the end of the war. This order is based
principally on the tremendously improved condition of the
country since the Emperor issued the edict prohibiting
traffic in this liquor.
Visitors arriving from Southern Russia say there is
such a change in that region that the country is hardly
recognizable. Peasants, who before the war had fallen
into hopeless indolence and depravity, already have
emerged into self-respecting citizens. The eflFect on
character is already visible in neatly brushed clothes,
instead of the former dilapidated and slovenly attire.
Huts which were formerly dilapidated and allowed to
go without repairs are now kept in first-class condition.
The towns have become more orderly and the peasants
indulge in wholesome amusements. These people now
save 55 per cent of their earnings, which formerly was
spent for drink, and they have increased their earning
capacity through sobriety. This extra money is now
devoted to the necessities and comforts of life. This
startling regeneration of the peasantry is, in the opinion
of the Russian authorities, likely to have an important
effect on the social and economic conditions of all Russia.
A change in the large cities also is noticeable. Liquor
still is sold in first-class cafes, but these are virtually
empty. The Nevsky Prospect, once famous for its gay
midnight life, is now quiet, without a sign of revelry.
The Savings Bank reports of Russia show savings in-
creased 5,000 per cent (net) in the eight months follow-
ing the closing of the drink shops.
The United States Government reports on the
consumption of liquor show a decided decrease.
The consumption of liquor in 1913 was 143,220,-
056 gallons, in 1914 was 139,138,501 gallons, in
1915 was 125,155,178 gallons, a net decrease of
18 million gallons, in two years.
One hundred and eight distilleries went out of
business in 1915 and forty-one breweries ceased
to brew. The American Bankers Association
attribute this decrease to the wave of thrift which
seems to be sweeping over the United States.
Dr. Dennis of Cornell Medical School says:
"The tendency to beer drinking is greatly strength-
ened by cigaret smoking because this habit
becomes almost constant, causing a dryness of
the throat and fauces, and hence irritating the
throat." "The cigaret habit with its attendant
evils, the saloon and vice," says Mr. E. W.
Baines in an article on "The Hopeless Handi-
cap,"^® "is sapping the mental and moral stamina
of American young men, gnawing at the very
vitals of their physical well-being. Teachers
throughout the country recognize in the cigaret
the school's deadliest foe, and confess without
reservation that they find it practically impos-
sible to educate a cigaret-smoking boy." He
cites from the records of Harvard University
the fact that "for fifty years not one tobacco
user has stood at the head of his class, although
five out of six (83 per cent) Harvard students
use the weed. A city magistrate said recently,
*Out of 300 boys brought before me charged with
various crimes 295 were cigaret-smokers.' Ac-
cording to the findings of Dr. Shaw, 80 diseases
18 The Literary Digest, August 8, 1914.
are traceable to tobacco, and 25,000 die annually
It is an economic waste, as declared by Dr.
D. H. Kress, an eminent physician, when he cal-
culated that the amount spent in the United
States alone for tobacco, annually, would enable
him to provide thirty thousand families each
with the necessities of life. In addition he says:
"I could grant an allowance of $5,000 to each of
ten thousand other families. To each of ten
thousand others I could give $10,000. To each
of one thousand other heads of families, I could
make a Christmas present of $50,000. To each
of another thousand I could give $100,000; and,
besides, to each of five hundred of my best
friends I could make an annual allowance of
$1,000,000. After doing all this, I would still
have left each year $200,000,000 to bestow on
charitable institutions, and at least $10,000,000
to keep the woK from the door."
Give the boy these facts, adding the advice
of Robert Burdette: "My son, as long as thou
hast in thy skull the sense of a jay bird, break
away from the cigaret, for lo, it causeth thy
breath to stink like a glue factory; it rendereth
thy mind less intelligent than that of a cigar
store dummy; yea, thou art a cipher with the
rim knocked off."
In twenty-seven years of personal friendship
with many thousand boys, the author has yet
to meet the boy who did not have a moral let-
down in his life the moment he began using
tobacco. These are the two great foes of youth,
tobacco and alcohol — eliminate these, and you
eliminate myriads of other foes.
The most serious problem is to guide this ^
coming man through the period when mind
begins to have control over body, for "as a boy
thinketh so is he.*' "About eight hundred
thousand boys come to maturity every year.
Every one is born a male animal, gifted by the
Author of Life with the germ of the sacred
power of begetting children born in His image.
The call to this power speaks in the boy so
early that it startles him. It finds him fatally
ignorant of its meaning. He turns this way
and that for guidance and finds anything but
satisfaction in the half-amused, half-scandalized
confusion of parents over his ingenuous queries.
His training consists of a stuffing process that "
results too often in an artificial rather than a
It is the unnatural, hot-house forcing that is ^
responsible for the highly nervous and sexually
passionate adolescents, and there is a great
lesson as well as a gleam of humor in these verses
of Nixon Waterman:
w Wilson, "The Education of the Young in Sex Hygiene," p. 32.
"Hurry the baby as fast as you can.
Hurry him, worry him, make him a man,
OfiP with his baby clothes, get him in pants.
Feed him on brain foods and make him advance.
Hustle him, soon as he's able to walk.
Into a grammar school; cram him with talk.
Fill his poor head full of figures and facts.
Keep on a-jamming them in till it cracks.
**Once boys grew up at a rational rate;
Now we develop a man while you wait.
Rush him through college, compel him to grab
Of every known subject a dip and a dab.
Get him in business, and after the cash.
All by the time he can grow a mustache;
Let him forget he was ever a boy.
Make gold his god and its jingle his joy;
Keep him a-hustling and clear out of breath
Until he wins — nervous prostration and death."
In how few homes is sex instruction given by
fathers and mothers. The boy has the right to
be taught God's laws of reproduction and life
and those engaged in the business of human
culture, whether father or god-father, cannot
brush aside lightly this great responsibility. For
a parent not to know the boy's physical charac-
teristics and possibilities and powers is a kind
of negligence bordering on the criminal. Parents
should understand that building a clean, whole-
some character is much greater than erecting a
house of stone and mortar. The rephes from 169
churches received by the Commission appointed
by the International Sunday School Association
to study Adolescence, to the questions regarding
the physical life of the adolescent,^" reveal a start-
ling lack of interest and knowledge concerning the
religion of the body and its relationship to the reli-
gion of the soul, and the twelve recommendations
made by the Commission should be considered
seriously by every church worker among boys.
Other organizations have for years recognized
this relationship, which in part is responsible
for their success in winning and holding boys.
"The Health Creed" distributed by the Massa-
chusetts State Board of Health among boys and
girls is proving a most effective method of win-
ning boys to self-preservation through the sane
observance of the laws of good health. The
creed is as follows:
"My body is the temple of my soul, therefore,
"I will keep my body clean within and without,"
"I will breathe pure air and I will live in the sun-
"I will do no act that might endanger the health of
"I will try to learn and practice the rule of healthy
**I will work and rest and play at the right time and in
the right way, so that my mind will be strong and
my body healthy, and so that I will lead a useful
life and be an honor to my parents, to my friends
and to my country."
«> Alexander, "The Sunday School and the Teena," p. 216.
Through well conducted camps, exhilarating
hikes, interesting scout work, exciting games,
attractive lectures on health and hygiene, boys
have been led to reverence for their bodies and
to definite Christian Hving and service. Build-
ing boys is better than mending men. The com-
pensation for such work is clearly set forth in
the following verse:
"Who builds in Boys builds lastingly in Truth,
And 'vanished hands' are multiplied in power.
And sounds of living voices, hour by hour.
Speak forth his message with the lips of Youth.
Here, in the Home of Hope, whose doors are Love,
To shape young souls in images of right.
To train frail twigs straight upward toward the Light;
Such work as this God measures from above!
And faring forth, triumphant, with the dawn.
Each fresh young soul a missioner for weal.
Forward they carry, as a shield, the seal.
Of his example — so his work goes on.
Granite may crumble, wind and wave destroy.
Urn, shaft or word may perish or decay;
But this shall last forever and a day —
His living, loving monument — a Boy!"
"Mind is the master power that molds and makes
And man is mind, and evermore he takes
The tool of Thought, and shaping what he wills.
Brings forth a thousand joys, a thousand ills —
He thinks in secret, and it comes to pass
Environment is but his looking glass."
The body is the servant of the mind. It
obeys the operations of the mind, whether the
thought be deliberately chosen or automatically
expressed. At the bidding of unlawful thought
the body sinks rapidly into disease and decay;
at the command of glad and beautiful thoughts
it becomes clothed with youthfulness and beauty;
therefore a "sound mind in a sound body" is
something more than a maxim, it is a reality.
"'Tis the mind that makes the body rich."
What is mind.-^ Mind is the feeling, thinking,
willing part of man. More exactly, the mind
is that which manifests itself in our processes
of knowing, of feeling, and of willing. What
mind is in itself we do not know. We know only
what it does.
The body is the means of communication be-
tween the mind and the outside world. The
part of the body most intimately connected
with the mind is the brain, and it is interesting
to note here that, according to the study made
by Kirkpatrick, "The weight of the brain of boys
at birth is 12.29 per cent of that of the body,
while at twenty -five years it is only 2.16 per
cent of the weight of the body."^ It is outgrown
by other organs. This brain mass bom with
the boy betokens his capacity for mental de-
velopment and it is this which to so large an
extent presents him to us for the making.
''The organs of behavior, if one may use the
expression, are nerves and muscles. Acting con-
jointly they form the nervo-muscular, or as it is
now more often called, the 'sensori-motor* sys-
tem.'*^ The brain is the chief part of the nervous
system. A brief presentation of the nervous
system will help us imderstand the workings of
the boy's mind, for we are rapidly retreating
from the old mistaken idea that "children's heads
are hollow," and the following verse taken from
the London Post is a bit of irony in favor of the
more progressive educational movement, which
believes in natural and visualized methods in-
1 Erkpatrick, "Fundamentals of Child Study," p. 19.
* Mark, "Unfolding of Personality," p. 48.
stead of the ready made and automatic methods
so much in vogue.
"Ram it in, jam it in,
Children's heads are hollow;
Slam it in, cram it in.
Still there's more to follow.
Hygiene and history-
Greek and trigonometry.
Ram it in and cram it in
Children's heads are hollow.
Scold it in, mould it in.
All that they can swallow;
Fold it in, hold it in.
Still there's more to follow.
Faces pasty, pinched and pale
Tell the plaintive, piteous tale;
Tell of hours robbed from sleep.
Robbed from meals for studies deep;
All who 'twixt these millstones go
Tell the selfsame tale of woe;
How the teacher crammed it in.
Rammed it in, jammed it in.
Crunched it in, clubbed it in.
Pumped it in, stumped it in.
Rapped it in, slapped it in.
When their heads were hollow.'*
Someone has said, "You can lead a horse to
water, but you cannot make him drink; you
can drive a boy to school, but you cannot make
him think." All real education consists in the
use of facts rather than their accumulation, for
**The mind is not a garner to be filled.
But a garden to be tilled."
The nervous system consists of two parts: the
cerebro-spinal system and the sympathetic sys-
tem. The nervous tissue of the cerebro-spinal
system is of two kinds: white matter, consisting
of nerve fibers, and grey matter, consisting of
nerve fibers and nerve cells. The brain is en-
closed in the cranium or skull. It consists of
several parts, the chief of which are the cerebrum,
or the seat of sensation, reasoning, emotion, and
volition (these powers seem to reside in the
grey matter) ; the cerebellum, the regulator or co-
ordinator of muscular movement, and really the
servant of the cerebrum; and the medulla ob-
longata, or prolongation of the spinal cord, serv-
ing as a conductor between the spinal cord and
the cerebellum and cerebrum.
Maturity, or more properly great increase of
eflBciency, is marked by the appearance of the
medullary sheath or spinal marrow, surrounding
the nerve fibers in the centers. "At birth, there
is little medullation in the cerebrum, or upper
part of the cranium. Here the sensory centers
mature first; first those of smell, then of sight,
last of all, those of hearing. The centers in the
cortex which preside over voluntary motion
seem to mature later. The child is at first sen-
sory and receptive; later an active, motor, pur-
posing, and voluntary being, "^ then these two
stages become united. During the period of
growth and of early development every organ
is plastic and easily modified. Then these mod-
ifications set and become permanent. The brain
forms no exception to the rule. There is a time
when it is easy to learn and acquire. If we de-
lay too long, we learn and acquire with diflBculty.
"It is hard to teach an old dog new tricks," and
"as the twig is bent the tree's inclined," are old
sayings, in perfect accord with deductions of
science. The sympathetic system is situated on
each side of the backbone or vertebral column.
Branches from this system ramify to the heart,
stomach, etc., and do much to control these
organs. The sympathetic system is concerned
more closely with the body than with our mental
life. The nervous system has thus been explained
in detail in order that the wonderful unfolding
of the boy's personality may be better understood.
"The mind of a young boy is apparently a
picture gallery of experiences, observations, and
* Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 72.
products of the imagination. When very young
he wishes to handle everything. His eyes and
ears are wide open. His usual question is, 'What
is it?' There is much in a name to him. We
give him things to see what he will do with them.
He is really experimenting with himself and the
world, which is wonderfully fresh and fascinating
to him. These characteristics of the sensory
I>eriods last from infancy to perhaps the eighth
year. The second period, from seven to thir-
teen, is one of coordination of motion and emo-
tion. The sense organs are still improving, but
this is chiefly a motor epoch, when his interest
is in plays calling forth the use of the muscles
of the legs and arms."* Aroimd thirteen is the
age when boys begin to examine their evidence
critically, and when the reasoning power of the
mind appears as a dominant factor in the mental
life of the boy.
Imagination is a marked characteristic in the
mental development of a boy. Before thirteen
years of age, to him toys are symbols; a chair
becomes a horse, a car, or a boat; placed across
the corner of the room it forms a house, a cave,
or a wide field. As he grows older, imagination
becomes constructive. In the museum he sees
a knight's suit of armor; he calls up images of
man and horse, places the man, as it were, in-
* Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 76.
side the armor and spurs the horse, and begins
to unagme a knight ready for the tournament.
Here is activity involved in imagination, com-
bined with parts or whole of memory images,
made through reading or by looking at pictures.
His power of imagination plays an imp)ortant
part in mind development. Clear images can be
built up upon a sensory basis only. "Seeing
things at night" is tame compared with the
way a normal boy sees things with his eyes wide
open, things that are not — day dreaming, some
call it. It is not wrong either, for Alden says
"genius is creative imagination and ingenuity is
its power of insight." The Wrights, Curtiss,
Ferris, Edison are the product of imagination.
"Imagination gives wings to his hope, feet
to his reason, force to his decision and vivid-
ness to his memory. It furnishes him invisible
armor and victorious arms for his battle against
the false and vicious and vulgar; for he can
picture to himseK the ideal, true, and virtuous
•and good and then make them real. It enables
him to secure control of himself at the time
when he is becoming acquainted with his own
volatile and mysterious powers, for he can be
made to see the vast benefit to come from such
Imagination is the means of bringing in sug-
» Kirtley, "That Boy of Yovirs," p. 39.
gestions from the outside and taking them out
again into the life. We cannot estimate the
power of suggestion. It is putting the idea into
the mind of another which becomes an action.
This servant of the mind, is also capable of
playing havoc with a boy's life. A speaker,
when talking to a Sunday school class about
the fixedness of habits, said that if they would
write their names in the cement sidewalk while
it was soft, the writing would last as long as
the walks. Of coiu*se the boys did the writing
without any loss of time.
Someone has said, "the boundary line between
virtue and vice is situated in the imagination."
If the imagination is not disciplined, its very
power becomes the boy's weakness. Much of
the injury to boyhood is to be traced to an out-
raged imagination. In adolescence the boy longs
for comradeship which he can "idealize," and
therefore he affords his parents and men a rare
chance to help him transform ideas and ideals
into things, and change the golden dreams of
boyhood into the worthy deeds of manhood.
Too much stress cannot be placed upon the
educational value of pictures, such as Watt's
"Sir Galahad" with its impelling message, "My
strength is as the strength of ten because my heart
is pure"; Hofmann's "The Boy Jesus," with
purity of life gleaming from the eyes and every
line of the face; and "Washington in Prayer at
Valley Forge,'* a reproduction of the bronze
tablet on the Sub-Treasury in Wall Street, New
York, which made such an impression on a Boy
Scout as he stood looking at it, that a writer
has immortalized the scene in the following verses :
"Wall Street rang and echoed with its traflSc;
A brown Boy Scout stood in his khaki there
Before the bronze which showed his Nation's father
Kneeling in anguish to his God in prayer.
The trim boy, hustled by the rushing thousands.
His bright eyes still kept fastened on That Face;
His lips, soft parted, like a sweet flower trembled;
He seemed exalted in his boyish grace.
He turned, his tanned cheek flushed with noble fervor.
While his brave eye with resolution flamed;
If Washington could kneel in supplication.
Then why should I, a mere boy, feel ashamed!
Whenever dangers in my life surround me,
I'll ever think of that bronze gleaming there!
Great Washington, who led our mighty Nation,
Shall be the leader of one boy in prayer."
Roark in his "Psychology in Education" says:
"Parents and teachers should set before boys
and girls the best characters in literature, his-
tory, and biography; not in any goody-goody
way, not with too much stress upon the de-
sirabihty of imitating them, but in a frank,
cordial, rational way. . . . What the imagination
habitually contemplates that will it form into
the ideals in whose image we make ourselves. *'•
It was a clever, actively thinking, handsome
boy of sixteen who said, "I sometimes think, I
often think, that perhaps it would be a good
idea for a fellow to be buried when he was fif-
teen and not dug up again until after he was
twenty. It's so hard for a boy to know just
exactly what is best to do." He had to come
to the point where he must begin to decide.
He is now battling his way through a chaos of
developments. "Before him stretch all the long
years of life, years of thought, of work, of attain-
ment, or years of blighted hope, of struggle, and
failure, and useless despair. Those years may
hold so much! Behind him lie his poor young
sixteen birthdays, more than half of them the
birthdays of a child, and his experience is all
that hes between them."' He must now decide.
Here is where most of life's tragedies are enacted.
Blessed is that parent or friend who can so in-
terpret the mind of the boy that he can sug-
gest a "way out."
Modern economic conditions have weakened
the power of the will. Luxury, over-heated
houses, rapid transportation, have produced a
physical laziness which is a disease of the will.
» Roark, "Psychology in Education," p. 216.
7 Bok, "Before He is Twenty," p. 35.
In the olden days "will culture" was acquired
through authoritative direction of the parents.
Respect for authority must be a part of the
boy's mental development. "To obey is liberty."
Directing his will is better than breaking his
will. Outwardly the will manifests itself in
actions and deeds; inwardly it controls the
thoughts. There is nothing that will help de-
velop and strengthen the will hke responsibility
for given tasks or work. The boy's love of
activity, coupled with the joy of achievement,
may be the means of his mastering the secrets
of a strong will and prepare him to face his fu-
ture with increasing strength. Moral deteriora-
tion results from a weak will, which may be
explained partly by defective imagination and
partly by weakness of motive. Get the boy to
see that work brings pleasure, skill, approbation,
promotion, and the consciousness of increased
There are about 13,000,000 young men in the
United States of the teen age. Were they to
march ten abreast, twelve feet apart, they would
form a column 2,800 miles long, almost the dis-
tance from New York to San Francisco. They
could start with the raw material and build the
Brooklyn Bridge in three hours. They could
build the Chinese Wall in five days. They
could build a railroad from New York to San
Francisco between the rising and setting of the
sun. The problem of saving them from habits
that wreck, from idleness, from atrophying lux-
ury, from misdirected energy, and helping them
to form habits that build character and that
make for efficiency and good citizenship, is
Nearly all habits, mental and personal, are
formed before twenty years of age. "All authors
agree that habit has a physiological basis; that
the sensation which the nerve carries to the
brain for the first time cuts a path, speaking
figuratively, through the brain, and that the
same sensation, if repeated, and not prevented
from doing so, will follow the same path. When
this has been done so many times as to be re-
peated unconsciously, habit has been formed."*
The plasticity of the living matter of our nervous
system, in short, is the reason why we do a
thing with difficulty the first time, but soon do
it more and more easily, and finally, with sufficient
practice do it semi-mechanically, or with hardly
any consciousness at all — for example, the wind-
ing of one's watch, dressing and undressing, etc.
It is unfortunate that the word habit has been
popularly associated with evil rather than with
good. As James says: "We talk of the smoking-
habit, and the swearing-habit, and the drinking-
8 See, "Teaching of Bible Classes," p. 147.
habit, but not of the abstention-habit, or the
moderation-habit, or the courage-habit. But the
fact is that our virtues are habits as much as
our vices. "^
Habit is character. Ex-President EHot re-
cently said: "I have seen for thirty years a steady
stream of youth coming to the University, eight-
een or nineteen years of age. In almost every
instance the character of the youth is determined
before he goes to college. He has determined the
way he faces before he is eighteen years old."
"A character," says J. S. Mill, "is a completely
fashioned will." The Bible recognizes the im-
portance of the habit of right thinking. "Thou
wilt keep him in perfect peace whose mind is
stayed on Thee." "Think on these things."
"As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he."
Thought determines character.
"Sow a thought and reap a deed.
Sow a deed and reap a habit,
Sow a habit and reap a character.
Sow a character and reap a destiny."
Gladstone said: "What is really wanted is to
light up the spirit that is within a boy. In
some sense and in some effectual degree there
is in every boy the material of good work in the
world; in every boy, not only in those who are
» James, "Talks to Teachers," p. 64.
brilliant, not only in those who are quick, but
in those who are stolid, and even in those who
As the boy reaches the seventeenth and eight-
eenth years, his receptive powers quicken, and
there comes that period when the ego is at its
height, the time of self-assertion, self-sufficiency,
self-feeling, and braggadocio. Up until this
period he accepted things because he was told»
but now he begins to think for himself. It is
the period when doubts and questionings arise.
But remember that doubt is not the same as
unbelief; doubt is canH believe, unbehef is wonH
believe. Doubt often impUes intellectual strength.
He wants to go it alone. Here is where parental
authority and self-control, or rather freedom
from the control of parents, clash. If we under-
stand the individual dispositions of boys, we may
have a more correct idea of their motives. Dis-
position involves temperament, and both are
factors in the will. While many of the motives
of early boyhood are still present, yet those
which dominate now are those of vigorous im-
pulse and self-sufficiency, love of activity, love
of power, love of fame, seK-importance, and the
like. A wise parent or leader will seek the good
in each emotion and utilize it as a motive force.
Discipline is necessary in the formation of char-
acter, but it is only an aid, and requires other
forces to assist it. When penalties are inflicted,
their guiding principle should be their influence
Physical compulsion is not moral discipline.
Love and confidence are the great restraining
factors. "Love means patience when the boy
slips backward, appreciation when he steps for-
ward . . . and forgiveness for his stubbornness,
indifference, and ingratitude. Love substitutes
commendation for condemnation, prevention for
pimishment, and cooperation for coercion. "^° It
means the thirteenth chapter of First Corinthians
Consciously or unconsciously we have been
placing too much stress upon material things
rather than upon ideals, until the boy has a
confusion of ideas regarding life, instead of in-
spiring ideals. There is such a thing as a boy
growing into his ideal. Music, books, pictures,
help to create his ideals. Observation, imagina-
tion, discrimination, and judgment are all in-
volved in the cultivation of ideals. The re-
ceptive are far ahead of the creative and expressive
powers in boys of the teen age. As time goes
on, the desire for expression will grow and should
be encouraged, but with wisdom and tact. It
is at this point that memory comes to his aid.
Memory is not a special faculty, but a general
10 Raffety, "Brothering the Boy," p. 6.
condition of the mind. Without memory and
attention mental oj>erations would be impossible.
"When the mind acts in such a way that it
records, retains, and restores the ideas gained
by its own activity, it is said to perform an act
of memory." Memorizing passages in literature,
formulae in mathematics, definitions of important
terms in science is not only the acquisition of
knowledge, but as Ruskin says, is adding to the
storehouse which the boy is filling for future use.
What a wonderful language is music! It has
been called the "universal language of mankind."
"There is no feeling, perhaps, except the ex-
tremes of fear and grief, that does not find relief
in music — that does not make a man work or
play better." To hundreds of boys, however,
music is an unknown language. The boy*s
sensitive ears, capable of recognizing from forty
to thirty-eight thousand sounu vibrations per
second, will just as easily make a brain record
of the best as it will of the trash, and should
be trained early in life to distinguish the differ-
ence between the kind of music which exists
but for a day and that which abides in the soul
forever. The short life of a popular song or
tune is in itself an evidence of its worth lessness.
Compare with this the virility of the great
oratorios, symphonies, and hymns of the church.
Take for instance "The Messiah," written by
Handel in 1742, increasing in beauty each time
it is sung, and enjoyed by thousands at the
Christmas festival season, or those old melodious
airs like "Home, Sweet Home," "Swanee River,"
and scores of others that are not only melodious
but full of meaning, the words finding a response
in heart and soul, as the strains of melody and
the words come through the wide open doorway
of the ear.
Joseph Cook says: "Attention is the mother
of memory, and interest the mother of attention.
To secure memory, secure both her mother and
her grandmother." How many audiences to-day
can sing through two verses of "My Country!
'Tis of Thee" without getting the lines mixed,
or sing more than one verse of the "Star Spangled
Banner," without hesitation or uncertainty.'^ It
is because we do not think out the thing to be
remembered. Better thinking means always a
better memory. Getting a thing by heart as
well as by head will make a boy remember for-
ever, for he always remembers the thing his
heart is in. Hubbell says: "Too little emphasis
is placed on memory as a treasure house. The
wear and tear of daily life tends to rob one of
so much of the joy and beauty and freshness of
youth, that if in age he may lay under tribute
the treasures stored in a well-spent youth, he is
not only rich for all his life, but finds these
treasures developing new degrees of excellence
and reinforcing his mind in the hour of sorest
need. There comes a great temptation — ^and an
inspiring quotation, whether poetry or Scripture,
comes to make him strong. There comes a time
of discouragement — and the ray of hope bursts
through the clouded sky of his Ufe. There comes
an hour of doubt — and the high faith which has
been stored in the mind and heart is brought
back again, so that he mounts up as an eagle,
can run and not be weary, can walk and not
Language is the vehicle of thought, and the
necessary channel for both impression and ex-
pression, and yet, owing to the love for the
sensational and the desire to be original, "Slan-
guage" and not "language" is the modern boy's
vehicle of expression. Conradi some years ago
made a very interesting study of the origin
and use of "slang," and the results are printed
in Hall's "Adolescence," Vol. II. It appears
that between 14 and 16 years of age is when
its use is greatest. The reasons given were
that slang was more emphatic, more exact,
more concise, convenient, relieved formality, was
natural, manly, etc. Only a few thought it
was \iilgar. A somewhat striking fact is the
manifold variation of a pet typical form, for
u HubbeU,-"Up Through ChUdhood," p. 188.
instance, "Wouldn't that you?" the blank be-
ing filled in by jar, choke, rattle, scorch, get, start,
etc., or instead of you, adjectives are devised.
Conventional modes of speech do not satisfy
the youth, so that he is often either reticent
or slangy. Conradi goes on to say that weak
or vicious slang is too feeble to survive and what
is vital enough to live fills a need. The final
authority is the people, and it is better to teach
youth to discriminate between good and bad
slang than to forbid it entirely. Emerson calls
it "language in the making, its crude, vital,
raw material. It is often an effective school
of moral description, a palliative for profanity
and expresses the natural craving for super-
latives." The antidote to the excessive use of
slang is to furnish opportunity and incentive
for the reading of good English through "a gener-
ous diet of books abounding in ideals, informa-
tion, adventure, incident, told in strong, accurate,
and appropriate language."^^
In answer to the question, "What is your
favorite slang expression"? 349 boys representing
the Young Men's Christian Association and the
churches of 80 different cities and towns in
Massachusetts and Rhode Island gave the fol-
lowing replies. The slang expressions are grouped
" Burr, "Adolescent Boyhood," p. 17.
under the ages of the boys and arranged in order
of greatest prevalent usage.
Under 15 Yeabs
the worst is yet to
For the love of Mike!"
Ain't no sich thing, by heck.
Mein Gott in Himmel!"
AoE 15 Yeabs
"For the love of Mike!"
"Ding Bust it."
"Hang the luck!"
"Gosh Hang it!"
"Doggone it all!"
"Ding all the luck!"
"You go Fish!"
"You poor ^sh!"
"Cut it out!"
"Ar the dickens!"
"Oh lu lu!"
"You're full of coke!"
"You're foolish anyway!"
"You've got a fat chance!'*
"Hang the luck!'*
"What the heck!"
"I should worry!"
"Rats, go to grass!"
"Hear yer, oh yes!"
"Run up a tree and branch off!"
"Hurry up, you're wasting
"Oh you goup!"
"What are you selling now, I
"Do you like fruit? have an
"Say for the love of Pete, have
Age 16 Years
"Cut it out!"
"For the love of Mike!"
"Gee! you've got me!"
"Gosh ding it!"
"Gosh hang it!"
"Gol ding it!"
"Oh can it!"
"Oh the devil!"
"Oh what a Ham!"
"Oh cuss it all!"
"Oh man, oh boy!"
"Go to it!"
"Ruin did it!"
"What the dickens!"
*' Believe me!"
"Go and Hang!"
"For crab's sake!'*
"Hang it all!"
"Have a lemon!"
"Pass the pickles!"
"Cut the raw stuff!"
"Quit your kidding!"
"Forget the hot air!"
"Good night shirt!"
"Well, I'll be darned!"
"Go to the bugger!"
"Get, some pep in it!"
"You're full of coke!"
"For the love of Mike!"
"That's your tough luck!'
"Ain't it a great 'un!"
"For the love of Mike!"
"Gee, that's tuff!"
"Oh, hang it!"
"The deuce with it!"
"Oh, blue jay!"
"Cut it out!"
"What the deuce!"
"ril be darned!"
"Son of a gun!"
"Thunder and Ice!"
"Good night, nurse!"
"For Gory sake!"
"Oh, hire a hall!"
"Have a heart, kid!"
"What do you mean, kid!"
"Au, cut your kiddin' !"
"That's nice, don't fight!"
"Slide your cow along!"
"You're so bright your mother
calls you son!"
Age 18 Years
You're full of coke!"
It's more gosh darn fun!"
•Cut it out!"
•For the love of Mike!
•Gol ding it!"
Age 19 Years
•Gee!" •'The Hell with it!"
•Darn it!" ''Crackie!"
'For the love of Mike!" "Believe me Xantippe!*
'Gosh!" ••Jimminy Whiskers!"
•Believe Me!" **Good night!"
**Have a heart!" "Get your goat!"
"Gosh darn it!" "I should worry!"
"Gol darn it!" "What gets my goat!"
"Damm it!" "O, come on, cut it out!"
Age 20 Yeabs and Oveb
"Gosh!" "Oh Hell!"
"Gee Whiz!" "What's the idea!"
"By Chowder!" "You poor Simp!"
"Gosh hang it!" "Stop, you're kidding me now!'*
It will be noticed that as the boys approach
the later teens, the expressions grow bolder and
border pretty close, in fact altogether in some
phrases, to accepted "swear words."
In the early ages of twelve and thirteen, in-
terest centers in story telling. "A camp fire,
or an open hearth with tales of animals, ghosts,
heroism, and adventure can teach virtue, and
vocabulary, style, and substance in their native
unity. "^^ As the boy grows older he becomes
interested in books of information and it is
encouraging to note how "Everybody's Library,"
"The Book of Knowledge," "Popular Mechanics"
is rapidly displacing the "thriller." Guard against
too much reading, excessive use of slang, and
too great expenditure of nerve force in the "ab-
sorbing" book, and skilfully direct his language
and his reading so that he will enrich his mind
M HaU, "Youth," p. 258.
and store away rich and varied knowledge for
the future years.
In order to get first-hand information regard-
ing the kind of books and magazines boys ac-
tually read and enjoyed most, 326 boys were
asked the following questions: "Of all the books
you have ever read which two or three do you
like best?" and "What magazines do you enjoy
best?*' The repUes are surprising as well as
interesting. They are classified according to the
age of the boy and in the order of the greatest
preference. The largest proportion of the boys
were between 15 and 17 years of age.
Favorite Books and Magazines
Dan Monro Youth's Companion
The Boys of '76 Boys' Life
Two Little Savages Electrical News
The Cruise of the Cachalot
Up from Slavery-
Riders of the Purple Sage
The Best Man
BOOKS Double Traitor
Pilgrim's Progress The Sea Wolf
The Phantom Ship The Book of Knowledge
Sherlock Holmes The Merchant of Venice
Kidnapped The Prince of the House of
College Days A Whaleman's Adventure
The Lost Gold Mine
Boy Scouts Books
Top Notch Library-
Lone Star Rangers
The Rainbow Trail
The Little Shepherd
The Last of the Mohicans
A Tale of Two Cities
A Man Without a Country
The Trail of the Lonesome
The Horseman of the Plains
Knights of King Arthur
Stover at Yale
Around the World in 80
The Shepherd of the HUls
Red Pepper Burns
Kadet Kit Karey
The Boss of Wind River
Dave Darrin Series at An-
The Scarlet Letter
Winning His Way
Tom Brown's Schooldays
Dave Porter Books
The Heritage of the Desert
The Amateur Gentlemen
The Call of the Wild
The Little Shepherd of
The Story of a Bad Boy
Only an Irish Boy
A West Point Yearling
The Sky Pilot
Ward Hill Series
The Head Coach
Uncle Sam's Boys as Re-
Story of Panama Canal
Marvels of Modern Me-
Camping for Boys
Rolf in the Woods
The Blazed Trail
The Count of Monte Cristo
The Three Musketeers
Rise of Roscoe Paine
By Right of Conquest
History of U. S.
As You Like It
Rover Boy Series
Riders of the Purple Sage
The Stroke Oar
Planting the Wilderness
The Sea Wolf
Life of Washington
Up from Slavery
Saturday Evening Post
Review of Reviews
The Last of the Mohicans
The Perfect Tribute
The Twisted Skein
Prince of Graustark
Tim and Roy in Camp
Little Sir Galahad
The Lay of the Last Min-
Bob, Son of Battle
Blindness of Virtue
O. Henry's Works
As You Like It
The Sky Pilot
Tommy's Remington Bat-
Camp in the Foot Hills
Prescott at West Point
Rover Boy Series
Dave Porter Series
- Sea Wolf
A Tale of Two Cities
Harry Watson's High
Beltare the Smith
Boy Scout Series
Life of George Washington
History of U. S.
The Vicar of Wakefield
The Patrol of the Sun
The Maid of the Whisper-
College Life (Dean Briggs)
Tom Swift Series
The Shepherd of the Hills
The Inside of the Cup
The Master of the Inn
Near to Nature's Heart
The Blazed Trail
A Final Reckoning
Paul Leonard's Sacrifice
The Call of the Wild
Travels with a Donkey
The Lost Prince
The Other Wise Man
Glengarry School Days
Life of Benjamin Franklin
The Merchant of Venice
A Man Without a Country
The Lure of the Labrador
The Winning of Barbara
The Valley of Fear
Riders of the Purple Sage
On Your Mark
The Head Coach
The Little Shepherd of
The Girl of the Limberlost
Frank Hunter's Peril
Winning His Way
The Three Musketeers
The Golden Hope
Lookout Island Campers
On the Wings of the Morn-
Fighting in Flanders
Saturday Evening Post
Popular Science Monthly
Review of Reviews
House and Garden
Automobile Trade Journal
The Call of the Wild
The Last of the Mohicans
A Man Without a Country
The Trail of^the Lonesome
The Golden Silence
The Girl of the Limberlost
Winning His Way
The Last Days of Pompeii
The Merchant of Venice
Boy Pilot of the Lake
Tom the Telephone Boy
The Blazed Trail
The Heritage of the Desert
A Tale of Two Cities
Lone Star Rangers
Motor Boat Series
Stover of Yale
The Speedwell Boys
Boys of Lakeport Series
The Lady of the Lake
20,000 Leagues Under the
The Riders of the Purple
Rover Boys' Series
Boy Aviator Series
David at Oak Hill
Following the Ball
The Chambered Nautilus
The Two Gun Men
The Shepherd of the Hills
In the Valley of the Moon
Saturday Evening Post
Popular Science Monthly
The Call of the Wild
The Little Shepherd of
The Steering Wheel
Winning His W^ay
Sink or Swim
How the Other Half Lives
Tramping with the Tramps
The Shepherd of the HiUs
John Halifax, Gentleman
Tom the Bootblack
The Inside of the Cup
The Birds' Christmas Carol
At the Home Plate
The Trail of the Lonesome
The Merchant of Venice
Williams of West Point
The Cricket on the Hearth
The Count of Monte Cristo
The Light that Failed
The Three Musketeers
The Manhood of the Master
A Man Without a Country
The Call of the Wild
Two Years Before the Mast
The Other Wise Man
The Efficient Life
Acres of Diamonds
Gene-Stratton P,o r t e r' s
Life of Abraham Lincoln
The Deserted Village
The Bishop's Shadow
The Man in the Iron Mask
Plain Tales from the Hills
Up from Slavery
The Three Musketeers
The Shepherd of the Hills
The Last of the Mohicans
The Half Back
The Making of an Ameri-
The Trail of the Lonesome
The Manhood of the Master
The King Behind a King
The Shepherd of the Hills
A good history of the
The Efficient Life
Two Little Savages
In His Steps
How the Inner Light Failed
The Man Christ Jesus
Some Epochs of Life
Life of Christ
The Meaning of Prayer
The Man from Glengarry
The Choir Invisible
The camera, magnifying glass, plays, manual
training, travel, all have their value in the
development of the mind, so that the boy may-
know himself. The power the mind has for
knowing itself, its own acts, states, and pur-
poses, is called "consciousness." Consciousness
is the ultimate fact of mental life. It is a charac-
teristic of the mind. "Consciousness also in-
cludes the power of the soul to know itself as
the knower. This is the great central fact of
the mind. Indeed it is so fundamental that it
is often regarded as being synonymous with
the mind itself. It is this that gives me my
sense of personal identity, that gives me the
knowledge that I am I, without which there
would be no basis for other mental operations.
Consciousness is the general name for all mental
operations. The soul gains knowledge through
the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch.
One sense helps another. At a railroad crossing
we read, *Stop, look, listen.' The senses have
been called *Scouts of the soul.' "" They are
the windows through which the mind looks out
on the material world. Sensations crowd in upon
the boy's experience and the range of his utter-
ance is constantly enlarging. In genuine man-
hood, manhood of the largest measure, there is
a longing of the soul for knowledge, an intel-
lectual trend, positive and intense, that is cease-
less in its pursuit of truth. It is our privilege
to open up to youth the world of truth and
reality in which he dwells, so that he will see
beauty where there is beauty, his heart will
1* See, "The Teaching of Bible Classes," p. 93.
respond to all that is pure and noble, his sym-
pathies be aroused by every wail of distress, he
will delight in all that is good and spurn all
that is evil, he will be keenly alive to the moral
qualities of every act, he will realize that every
violation of the moral law gives pain — ^he will
be the complete man, considerate of the feelings
of others and responsive to all the calls of hu-
"Know thyself as the Lord of the chariot.
The body as only the car.
Know also the reason as driver.
The horses our organs are.
"There's always a lower, a higher choice.
And it's thine to choose, to shun;
To list to the tempter or hear the voice.
With cheer in its tones, *Well done.'
Your loss or your gain, and 'tis yours to say.
Which voice you shall hearken from day to day.
**The safe course? Need I repeat the thought?
The higher your choice, 'tis plain.
The clearer the vision the mind has caught.
The sweeter the song's refrain.
And upward mounting the soul's sure flight
Is bathed in the grander celestial light.
"For what is all that time can give.
Unless in tune we truly live?
And what at end is human gold.
Unless when life's full story's told.
Some soul's been purged because of touch
Of our life's gift."
"For there are moments in life, when the heart is so full
That if by chance it be shaken, or into its depths like
Drops some careless word, it overflows, and its secret
Spilt on the ground like water, can never be gathered
Longfellow — The Courtship of
Miles Standish — Part VI.
There are some people who think that a boy
has but little feeling and they trample upon
many of the things which he deems holy as if
they were mere bubbles. A careless word, an
unsympathetic attitude, an unfortunate laugh
has caused a kind of grief to the boy which time
itself has failed to heal. Boys call it "hurt
feelings." Failure to understand a boy's feel-
ings or emotions, often accounts for the in-
ability of older people to "hold" him during
his "storm and stress" period.
"Feeling," says H. Thiselton Mark, "is the
quality of pleasurableness or painfulness which
attaches in some degree to practically all our
experiences." We feel hungry, feel tired, feel
rested, feel well, feel angry, feel afraid. "To
say that we are born with definite capacities for
feeling is but another way of saying that we
are bom with one of the first essentials of con-
"Feelings which have a basis in intelligence
are generally called emotions, and are sometimes
sub-divided and designated passions^ emotions^
and sentiments. With this classification, emo-
tions occupy the middle ground, as medium in
intensity, while passions are violent emotions,
emotion which has passed beyond restraint, and
sentiments are emotions of a mild type. Pas-
sions are the whirlwind of feelings, sentiments
are a gentle breeze, while emotion is a word
which stands for the general body of feelings,
capable of passionate excess on the one hand
or a gentle flow on the other. "^
The emotional life of boys between thirteen
and eighteen years of age undergoes great and
sudden changes, a series of paradoxes. These
peculiarities may be the better understood if we
have a definition of the four great types of tem-
perament. First the weak motor temperament,
formerly called the sanguine. This is the lively,
excitable, enthusiastic, "red headed" or "tow
1 Mark, "The Unfolding of Personality," p. 82.
* Fiak, "Man Building," p. 134.
headed** boy with blue eyes, fair skin, and
animated face, a boy with respiratory and cir-
culatory system well developed, requiring very
little stimulation to exertion, but, unfortunately,
the eflPects of stimulation soon die away. He
depends largely upon his feelings, a sort of
"Georgie Giveup." Second, the strong motor
temperament, or the choleric, the intense, hot-
tempered boy of action, energetic, full of deter-
mination, self-reliance, and confidence, with the
will generally uppermost; a boy with well-de-
veloped muscular system, hair and eyes dark,
complexion sometimes sallow, face impassive.
He has slower reaction and is more enduring
than the boy of sanguine temperament. Third,
the strong sensor temperament, or sentimental or
perhaps better still "reflective*' type, usually a
boy of thought, reflection, and sentiment, who
has great love of poetry, music, and nature; not
very practical, the dreamer, a boy with slender
figure and delicate, motions quick, head large,
eyes bright and expressive. Fourth, the weak
sensor temperament, or phlegmatic, a slow-and-
steady, patient, self-reliant boy, somewhat slug-
gish, with mind heavy and torpid, sometimes
stupid; a boy with face round and expression-
less, lips thick, abdomen large, body generally
disinclined to exertion, ready for the "eats'*
at all times and hours. While boys generally
may be classified into these groups, you will
find that probably no boy has a temperament
purely weak motor or strong motor, or weak
sensor or strong sensor. This is particularly
true as boys reach maturity. During adolescence,
however, temperamental differences assert them-
selves with full vigor, and there is a broad and
readily traceable distinction between the "motor"
and "sensory" or the "active" and "sensitive"
Having before us these four general types of
boys let us trace some of their emotional in-
stincts. Ribot in his "Psychology of Emotion"
gives the following dominant emotional instincts:
Fear, aversion toward the strange, anger, affec-
tion, positive and negative self-feeling, the sex-
instinct, inner freedom, the instinct of efficiency,
sympathy, reverence, the sense of dependence,
surprise, and wonder. "Our emotional instincts
are at the very heart of our personality; accom-
panied, as they are, by instincts to behavior and
intellectual impulses, they are the motive forces
within us tending to make us what we are."^
Fear is an emotional instinct which manifests
itself very early in a boy's life — ^fear of noises,
strange people, the darkness, solitude, etc. That
great interpreter of child life, James Whitcomb
» Mark, "The Unfolding of Personality," p. 104.
Riley, senses this emotion in his "Little Orphant
**Onc't they was a little boy wouldn't say his prayers —
An' when he went to bed at night, away up stairs.
His Mammy heerd him holler, an' his Daddy heerd him
An' when they turn't the kivvers down, he wasn't there
An' they seeked him in the rafter-room, an* cubby-hole,
An' seeked him up the chimbly-flue, an' ever'wheres, I
But all they ever found was thist his pants an' round-
An' the Gobble-uns'U git you
At this awful threat you can see the tiny
listeners crouch with fear as they inwardly re-
solve to say their prayers for fear of the "(xobble-
uns." The hardest fears to control are the
fears that are purely of the imagination. Have
you ever whistled when you were afraid? What
we consider foolish fears are in reality very
serious to a child and are the gift of heredity.
Even weaker animals have this sense of fear;
when one faces a danger it cannot overcome,
it flees for safety. As the boy grows older and
becomes wiser and stronger, fear becomes a
great educational factor in his life. During the
teens, fear becomes a reasonable guide because
of knowledge and experience. Fear of being lost
passes over to fear of losing the points of the com-
pass; fear of great animals and "Gobble-uns"
diminishes. Fear becomes increasingly less physi-
cal and more social, and manifests itself in
shyness, blushing, giggling, chewing the nails,
awkwardness, twisting, trembling.
At this period the relation between parent and
boy should be of the closest character. Fear of
being misunderstood has kept many a boy from
confiding to his parent the secret things of his
life. A father's stem face and angry voice has
caused more than one boy to lie, for fear that
if the truth were told imjust punishment would
be meted out to him. For a boy has his fail-
ings, and, if sympathetically guided, they will
disappear as do warts and freckles and childish
features. Discipline is necessary in directing a
boy's life, and he should be made to imderstand
the meaning of "Whatsoever a man soweth that
shall he also reap." Then fear becomes a positive
force in his moral development, such as the
fear of giving pain or disappointment to those
whom he loves or esteems, and the kind of fear
that begets respect. Remove fear of wrong
doing from the world and you would have pande-
monium. Fear begotten of knowledge is the
great moral safeguard of youth and should al-
ways be encouraged.
Aversion toward the strange is a deep-
rooted instinct or emotion. It is the dislike
to the unaccustomed or the strange, and has
much to do with the "tribal" or "gang'* con-
sciousness. It is the "do not feel at home"
element in the boy. "We do not like a man
'whose character is such that we may reasonably
expect injuries from him or in whom there is
such an element of the unknown that we cannot
be sure of ourselves in his presence. This emo-
tional instinct shows itself in the framing of
codes of conduct whereby men somewhat sternly
ostracize those who do not conform to standard."*
This instinct wisely directed will help a boy
choose the right sort of companions, but if un-
directed will make him a snob of the worst sort.
In "Forward Pass" Dan Vinton's father gives
him this advice on the night before he starts
for a preparatory school in the east. "Don't
make your friendship too cheap; if a fellow wants
it, let him pay the price, if he has the making
of a real friend, he will do it." It is the definite
standing aloof from anything which is unworthy,
or behavior not based upon high standards of
living, which should be encouraged in every boy
during this period of adolescence. Egotistic
* Mark, "The Unfoldimj of Personality," p. 86.
emotions have a place in the life of a boy, espe-
cially in connection with his personal desires and
ambitions, such as the pursuit of scholarship,
satisfaction in the duty performed, feeling of
esteem based on right living and acts of unself-
ishness, but unworthy egotistic emotions, such
as pride, vanity, love of approbation, jealousy,
self-conceit, haughtiness, should at their first
appearance in a boy, be stifled.
Anger is one of the first emotional instincts
to manifest itself in a boy. Its legitimate purpose
is defense. Anger which degenerates into un-
controlled brutal passion is criminal. G. Stanley
Hall says, "Anger should be a great and diffused
IX)wer in life, making it strenuous, giving it
zest and power to the struggle for survival and
mounting to righteous indignation."^ The rapid
growth of a boy's body coupled with lack of poise
and judgment seems to account for the develop-
ment of the fighting instinct. In his great desire
to "show off" his physical powers he makes state-
ments regarding his achievements which arouse
resentment in his hearers. Then comes the
battle of words followed by the battle of fists,
for like his savage ancestry he settles his dis-
putes in the primitive physical fashion. Arbitra-
tion has not yet come into his vocabulary or
understanding. The boy in the grammar grade
* HaU, "Adole8oenoe,'^VoL I, p. 355.
is a natural scrapper and squabbler, who carries
a chip on his shoulder most of the time, inviting
"some boy his size" to knock it off. Anger is
generally explosive and brief. Teasing and tanta-
lizing a boy to excess during these years is often
the cause of irritability and a hysterical condi-
tion. A boy's anger is sometimes aroused by a
sense of injustice in being over-punished for
minor wrongs, or it may be aroused through
indulgence. When he can't have what he wants,
temper — "high spirits joined to nerves and
will" — ^ goes off guard and then follows a scene
of anger which is really passion, for which the
boy is after all not to be blamed. "Fathers,
provoke not your children to anger," or, as Wey-
mouth translates it, "Fathers, do not fret and
harass your children or you may make them
sullen and morose" (Colossians 3:21) is an
ancient biblical admonition still applicable to
parents of today.
Usually at about sixteen years of age the
boy begins to win real victories over bad temper
and uncontrolled anger. "The attainment of
full growth and of large muscular power, the
large heart and lungs, the well oxygenated blood
driven at high pressure, the activity and young
vitality of all the tissues and organs give buoy-
• Mrs. Chenery.
ancy and courage and a sense of power. "^ The
fighting instinct now becomes a strong impulse
to do great things. Thomas M. BaUiet says:
"If you crush the fighting instinct you get the
coward; if you let it grow wild, you get the
bully; if you train it, you have the strong, self-
controlled man of will."
A boy attending a preparatory school caused
his father considerable surprise when his report
card reached home, by having under "deport-
ment" the mark "good-plus." It was somewhat
unusual, in fact, so much so that the father
visited the school to ascertain the reason for
this unexpected outburst of goodness. Upon
reaching the school, the father went to the
office of the Head Master. After exchanging
greetings, the father said, "Won't you frankly
tell me how my boy got *good-plus' in deport-
ment?" "Gladly," said the Head Master. "The
other afternoon your boy was with a group of
boys on the campus and one of the group started
in to tell a dirty story. Almost immediately
your boy walked up to him and said, *Look here.
Bill, if you keep on telling that story I'll knock
you down.' Bill thought he was joking and
continued to tell the story, when your boy
made good his promise. He not only knocked
Bill down, but gave him a good thrashing as
'T Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 183.
well. Naturally the news of the fight reached
my office and I sent for your boy. When he
came I requested him to tell me all about the
affair on the campus and he told what I have
been telling you, only he added this, *I'll knock
down any fellow who tries to tell me that kind
of a story, for I have too much love and respect
for my mother and sister to permit that kind
of filth to be poured into my ears.' When the
report card was made out I felt that your boy
deserved *good-plus' in deportment, and. Sir, I
would like to have about one hundred boys
like your boy in my school." This boy was
never told in his early boyhood, "You must never
fight, only naughty boys fight," but, on the
contrary, he was instructed that it was the
proper thing to defend the pure name of mother
and woman. Righteous indignation or anger
controlled is often a manifestation of chivalry.
If the fighting instinct aroused by righteous
anger is cultivated in a boy we have the de-
fender of home, church, and country. Fifty
years ago the Union was saved by an army of
boys. The prayer of every youth should be:
"When from the field of mimic strife.
Of strength with strength, and speed with speed,
We face the sterner fight of life
As still our strength, in time of need,
God of our youth, be with us then.
And make us men, and make us men!'*
'"The instinct of affection," says Ribot, "im-
plies spontaneous attachment to its object and
often the rendering of spontaneous forms of
service, as is seen most clearly in maternal
affection. ... It is an unbreakable thread of
gold running through and through our social
life. It is the very soul of home-life and the
family relationship. It is the root-element in
friendship, loyalty, patriotism, comity of na-
tions, the enthusiasm of humanity."*
Love is a social feeling, a desire for others, a
"chmnminess." Did any boy ever run away
from home who enjoyed the privilege of a father-
chum? Affection or love is the greatest of the
emotions. There is no other feeling that is of
equal force in the development of a boy*s char-
acter. **The heart of a boy — God made it and
made it like Himself, and when we locate it,"
says Dr. Lilburn, "we shall find, I think, that
it is the largest part of the boy."® You cannot
measure its affection, therefore
"Seek to shape it outwardly.
Whatever moves the heart of a child
Because even the child's love can decay
If not nourished carefully."
The love of a boy is to be tested always by
its effect upon the will. It most shows itself
* Mark, "Unfolding of Personality," p. 88.
• Lilburn, "Winning the Boy," p. 36.
in deeds aroused by a capacity for doing. Love
without service becomes a sentimental bubble.
There is great danger lest parents, blinded by
foolish love, encourage selfishness by doing too
much for the boy. Selfishness is the great sin
of the world, sacrifice its antidote. "There is
a physical love which expresses itself in the
mere kiss and hug, and word of endearment.
This is not the all-purifying, all-glorious love,
so elevating to every life; it is but the door or
entrance to that other higher form of love which
manifests itself in service and self-sacrifice. "^°
There comes a time when there is a great
danger of love becoming "mushy" sentimental-
ism, the period when "spells are frequent and
fleeting, furious and funny. Mumps and measles
and whooping cough may be evaded, but sweet-
hearts never."" This is the time when heart
trouble comes frequently, when Marys and
Marthas, and Susies and Sallies pass m pro-
cession until one day "she" comes along; then
oh! how the boy longs to talk with some one
about this new experience! Blessed is that boy
whose father and mother have always shared
in his every experience and who can go to them
for that help, of which at this critical time of
his life he is so much in need.
w Mrs. HarriBon, "A Study of Child Nature," p. 77.
" Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 109.
Positive and negative self-feeling is a dis-
tinguishable emotional instinct, which reveals to
the boy two dispositions, sometimes buoyant
and sometimes diflSdent. Each form of self-
feeling has its place and meaning in the develop-
ment of character. Adult guidance and influence
is needed to give him balance and to protect
him from excess in either direction. He needs
the right kind of activities and experiences.
The sex-instinct is an emotion which will
require more space than the limits of this chapter
permit, and it will therefore be discussed in a
future chapter. ' -— "— -- '^^v.^;..!
Inner freedom is the longing within a boy
to do great things. Courage is perhaps a better
definition. "I am Youth, I can do all things!"
cries Peter Pan. It is the breaking out of the
shell into a large life of freedom. It is the oppo-
site of cowardice. The coward is the unfree
man. Inner freedom says to a boy "function,
do something worth while." This emotion is at
its height during the later teens. It is the con-
sciousness of mission. "One of the great acts
in the drama of youth," says McKinley, "is the
discovery of life. Going forth master of himself
and of his own affairs, the youth makes trial
of life on his own responsibility. He *sees life,'
he discovers what life is, and his first discovery
is tragic, for while none can be a man until his
soul has achieved its freedom, yet none is wise
enough to make faultless use of freedom when
The boy who has been taught to think
great thoughts and be ready to function or act
them out when the time comes, becomes the
Washington, Lincoln, Gordon, and Grenfell of
Efficiency or perfection is the presence within
the mind of the demand for adequacy. "Growth,"
says Herbert, "is the child's natural destiny."
Coming to this fulness of being, a boy some-
times forgets and we reprove him, when really
what he lacks is self-control and he needs read-
justment. As he grows older there should come
that impulse within himseM to remedy defects,
to make up for shortcomings. "Inner freedom"
says "function" — "Efficiency" says "function to
the full." The boy calls it "doing your best"
and "making good." This is the emotional in-
stinct which can be used in arousing his am-
bition for an education, counteracting his desire
to leave school and go to work, in creating in
him a respect for his body and its proper care,
in molding his moral and religious life, so that
he may enjoy an all-round, efficient manhood.
Sympathy is the emotion or instinct which
enables the boy to understand and enter into
. J2 McKifiiey, "Educational Evangelism," p. 30.
the feelings of others, and for the benefit of
others, even at the expense of personal pain.
Evidences of sympathy manifest themselves very
early in the life of a child. An infant two months
old will smile at his mother's face. A child of
two years is capable of feeling pity. Later there
comes a consciousness of his relation to others.
**I'* becomes "we." This emotion may also be
called the "altruistic feeUng." "Unselfishness and
active kindness," says E. P. St. John, "is stirred
by the realization of another's need."^^ At six-
teen or seventeen years of age this feeling of
unselfishness or altruism may become a strong
motive in helping him to determine the choice
of a life work, especially the altruistic professions
such as those of the physician, the minister, the
missionary, the social worker, the teacher, the
Association Secretary. There is great danger
in arousing sympathy unless there is a corre-
sponding opportunity for expression. Give the
boy a chance to do a kind act, a chance to re-
heve suffering, or to bestow a gift. Teach him
to put himself into his giving and doing. Service
is an essential in the salvation of a boy.
Reverence, because of the higher ideas with
which it is associated, is an emotion which
affects us most profoundly. The highest instinct
in man is the religious. A boy's most tangible
" E. P. St. John, "Child Nature and Child Nurture," p. 68.
conception of God the Father is his own father.
The love of a heavenly Father is best understood
when he sees evidences of love in his own earthly
father. Justice, mercy, kindness, truth, and
other attributes of God the Father are best
comprehended when his own flesh-and-blood
father exemplifies these attributes in his daily
life and conduct. Hero worship in a large degree
is the boy's reverence. Regard for a leader, a
friend, a parent, always manifests itself by an
attitude of respect. A boy, however, demands
of his hero something worthy of his respect and
reverence, for there comes a time when mere
physical power or a "stunt act" no longer appeals
to him. A boy would rather be interested than
amused. He demands heroism born of moral
or religious principles. Livingstone dying in the
heart of Africa; Gordon on his knees in China;
Stanley, the explorer, reading his Bible daily,
although lost in darkest Africa; Washington in
prayer at Valley Forge; Jesus Christ upon the
Cross, God's visible love for the world — these
are the heroes who satisfy his ideals, and call
from him the deepest reverence and devotion.
The lack of expression of this emotion is the
failure of adults to respond to his needs. Exam-
ple speaks louder than precept. When parents
themselves set the example of reverence for that
which makes for nobility of character, such as
worship, prayer. Sabbath observance, and the
sacred things of life, then the boy will not be
The other three emotions: sense of dependence,
surprise, and wonder are somewhat minor emo-
tions, and are embodied to some degree in those
Stifled emotions lead to coldness, barrenness,
and hardness in living. The parent who tries
to help the boy interpret and organize his emo-
tions will have his reward. This will require
much patience, prayer, and perseverance as well
as tact and activity. Keep before the boy God's
great heroes, those who were all-round men,
emotion-controlled men, representatives of the
world's greatest hero — Jesus Christ, men such as
** 'I want a hero' — well, that wish is wise;
Who hath no hero lives not near to God;
For heroes are the steps by which we rise
To reach His hand who lifts us from the sod.
I'll give you one. You've heard of Chinese Gordon,
Who laid the hot-brained Mongol low.
Strong, shod with peace or with sharp-bladed sword on.
To gain an ally or to crush a foe.
And reap respect from both. How came it so.?*
He used no magic, and he owned no spell.
But with keen glance, strong will, and weighty blow.
Did one thing at a time and did it well;
And sought no praise from men, as in God's eye.
Nobly to live content or nobly die.
'Some men live near to God, as my right arm
Is near to me, and thus they walk about
Mailed in full proof of faith, and bear a charm
That mocks at fear, and bars the door on doubt.
And dares the impossible. So Gordon, thou.
Through the hot stir of this distracted time
Dost hold thy course, a flaming witness how
To do and dare, and make our lives sublime
As God's campaigners. What live we for but this.
Into the sour to breathe the soul of sweetness.
The stunted growth to rear to fair completeness.
Drown sneers in smiles, fill hatred with a kiss.
And to the sandy waste bequeath the fame
That the grass grew behind us where we came."
— J. S. Blacblie.
"There are hermit souls that live withdrawn
In the place of their self-content;
There are souls like stars, that dwell apart.
In a fellowless firmament;
There are pioneer souls that blaze their paths
Where highways never ran —
But let me live in a house by the side of the road
And be a friend to man."
— Sam Walter Fobs.
The hermit or recluse is always regarded as
an abnormal being, for it is a law of nature for
bees to go in swarms, cattle in herds, birds in
flocks, fishes in schools, and boys in gangs. "This
gang instinct is absolutely necessary for the
proi>er social education of every boy. There is
no other way . . . whereby he must be saved
from narrowness of mind, selfishness and self-
conceit.'*^ "The gang instinct itself,'* says Dr.
Hall, "is almost a cry of the soul to be influ-
enced." Up until about eleven years of age the
boy is still self-centered and must be dealt with
individually. While he likes to be with other
1 Forbush, "The Boy Problem," p. 63.
boys, yet the competitive motive is strong, and
he has no adequate conception of subordinating
self for the good of the group. As he enters the
teen period this form of selfishness gradually
disappears, and a new social consciousness takes
its place. It is the desire for fellowship. The
most interesting thing to a boy is another boy.
Homesickness is a universal disease for which
there is no better medicine than a sympathetic
friend, a father, or a mother.
In the preceding chapters we traced the boy
through his physical, intellectual, and emotional
changes and developing instincts until, through
the senses, he awakens to the consciousness of
being an integral part of human society. He is
now becoming acquainted with the world out-
side himself. His life is widening out. Indis-
criminate chumship is beginning to wane and
gives way to the gang. After the gang days
chumship sets in again and has in it the element
of endurance and discrimination. This main
chum period is usually at the age of fifteen or
G. E. Johnson has called attention to the fact
that a very large part of our life is spent in pre-
paring to live. He says that a cat is a kitten
for about half of its life; a dog is a puppy for
about one tenth of its life; it takes a horse one
seventh of its life to come to maturity; but it
takes a human being almost one third. Why
this one third? And if there is a Divine purpose
in it, should not more attention be given to the
way these years are spent?
Misfits in society are the result of neglected
and, many times, abandoned boyhood. Human
derelicts are products of a misguided youth.
Rosenkrantz says that moral culture is the essence
of social culture. The moral idea grows out of
the social. According to Prof. James, "By the
age of fifteen or sixteen the whole array of human
instincts is complete." Unless the boy is con-
sidered as a part of society now, as a boy, and
as a citizen in the making, to be related later to
social facts, he is hable to get lost in the midst
of conflicting social conditions. Many social
forces are pressing in upon him which make it
imperative that an adult come to his rescue,
before the destructive social forces claim him as
"The social instincts are those concerned with
relations to other persons. This class includes
sociability, shyness, sympathy, affection, altru-
ism, modesty, secret iveness, love of approbation,
rivalry, jealousy, envy."^
Desire for sociability, or the friendly instinct,
is the link that binds man to man, the fire that
warms an otherwise dead and cheerless world.
* Weigle, "The Pupil and Teacher," p. 67.
It is this instinct which decides the choice in the
exercise of the "pairing" tendency. "The choice
of friends," says Hugh Black, "is one of the most
serious affairs in life, because a man becomes
moulden into the likeness of what he loves in
his friend," for
" 'Tis thus that on the choice of friends
Our good or evil name depends.'*
He who tactfully guides a boy in the selection
oi his chums or intimate friends is his benefactor.
It is not only sociability which creates within a
boy a desire for chumship, but the confiding
instinct is also developing, and he is now grow-
ing secretive. He is the possessor of newly
awakened powers and he is not sure of himself.
Another boy discovers he is in the same con-
dition. The two come together and they under-
stand each other. The things they talk about
are naturally the things of their daily life, sports,
ambitions, and — ^girls. They have a peculiar
whistle, mysterious signs, and even a code lan-
guage with each other. After awhile, this chum-
ship emerges into the larger combination of
congenial spirits and becomes the "gang."
It is as natural for gangs to come into being
and as much a part of boy nature, as is the
•desire to swim or play baseball. "It is safe to
say that three boys out of four boys," declares
Puffer, **belong to a gang," and in a study which
he made of one hundred and forty-six boys of
the Lyman Industrial School he found one
hundred and twenty-eight were in gangs. "Boys
organize," says Swift, **because it is their nature
to herd together. Self-protection was probably
the incentive to gregariousness in the lower
animals, and with the app)earance of man this
same impulse to unite in bands gained increased
strength from his helplessness against the fierce
animals by which he was surrounded."^
Dr. Sheldon's study of spontaneously organized
"gangs" to the number of six himdred and
twenty-three, which he fully described, revealed
the fact that 1}^ i>er cent were philanthropic,
3}^ per cent secret, 434 P^r cent social (for "good
times"), 434 per cent devoted to literature,
music or art, S}/^ per cent industrial, 17 per cent
predatory (for hunting, fighting, building, camp-
ing, etc.) and 61 per cent athletic. It will be
noted that physical activity is the keynote of
by far the larger number — 863^ per cent, if we
add the industrial to the predatory and athletic
To capture the gang and not work against it,
is to use it in the boy's social education, for
some of the greatest lessons in loyalty, the
» Swift, "Youth and the Race," p. 258.
brotherhood of man, and idealism he learns in
the school of the gang. A wise parent will pro-
vide a place for the gang to meet. "He needs
a room of his own,'* says Kirtley, "in his business
of being a boy. If he does not get it at home
he always wants to establish headquarters some-
where else — on the street corner, or a vacant lot,
or in another boy's home. His self-respect and
social standing require that he have a place
where he can bring his friends; if he brings them
to his home, they will be in a respectable place
and not be apt to get their relatives in trouble.
He will be proud to have his parents become
honorary or sustaining members of the Club;
that will give those parents a chance to take the
sting out of all mischief and renew the joys of
long ago. His room is a social center, training
him for life."* In the October, 1914, issue of the
Mothers* Magazine is told a true story of how a
boy of well-to-do parents was literally driven to
evil companionship, because his parents refused
to welcome his friends to their home. Several
paragraphs are here quoted from the story.
"When I was a boy of ten, my playmates were
sons of well-to-do families in my little home
city. Like myself they had their bicycles, their
tennis courts, their ponies and dogs, and their
parents dressed them in clothes of good quality.
< Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 190.
In my outdoor sports I had plenty of chums,
but in mdoor amusements it was different. This
was not my fault. I loved fun and study, and I
liked to be with my boy friends and have them
with me. Outdoors we were all chums, but we
seldom met indoors, because my mother refused
to let my boy friends visit my home, and, natu-
rally enough, my invitations grew fewer and
farther between, and finally vanished almost
"My mother was opposed to parties, because,
she said, they made too much work. They al-
ways disturbed her furniture. . . . My mother's
idea of the proper place for boys to play was
on some vacant lot or in the barn — anywhere
except in her house. She sacrificed me and my
whole life on the altar of her painful neatness,
and condenmed me to become an outcast and
a criminal, rather than run the risk of having
my boy friends and me scratch the varnish on
some precious chair, or leave dust from our
boots on her treasured carpet.
"Home conditions were such that I gradually
dropped out of the company of my earlier boy
chums, and I began to go with boys of a lower
grade in society, for I could not with relf-respect
keep the company of boys who invited me to
their homes and expected to be invited to mine.'*
Then follows a tale that is heart-breaking.
He and his new found gang were found guilty
of stealing. He was sent to the State Reform
School until he should be eighteen years of age.
In stating the case the father said to the Judge:
"For six months or more Jerry has been unman-
ageable and wild; we have given him every oppor-
tunity at home and done everything we could
for his good, but I am convinced that strict
discipline is all that can save him. We have
given him the best of homes and he has had a
nice room, good clothes and good books. We
have read the Bible with him and tried to keep
him home, but he hasn't shown a bit of appre-
ciation. I came here to ask you to send Jerry
to the Reform School until he is eighteen."
"I have hated my father and mother since
"During a wakeful, remorseful night at the
police station, I had made up my mind that my
father would pay my fine, that I would leave
school, give up my bad companions, go to work
and behave myself. My father's hard words,
and the hard face he turned to me turned my
heart to stone." This is a terrible indictment
against house-keeping instead of home-making.
When home becomes more than a house with
four walls and a roof, and is a genuine social
center, then there will be fewer true tales like
this to tell.
Have you ever thought of the family meal
as a great socializing factor? At no one time
does the family really come together except at
the dining table. The gravest peril confronting
our American homes is the passing away of the
family life that had a place in its daily program
for three meals, when there were not only good
things to eat but also an opportunity to talk
over current events and family interests. It
is this inner social environment which shapes
very vitally a boy's character. Luxuriously
furnished hotel dining rooms and restaurants,
quick lunch counters, and boarding houses can
never be a substitute for or even meet the social
needs to be found only in a home, be it ever
Play forms a very large part in the social
adjustment of boyhood. Van Dyke says, "If
I can teach these boys to study and play to-
gether, freely and with fairness to one another,
I shall make them fit to live and work together
in society.'* Play is not only the most vital
thing about the boy, but also the most normal.
It is a preparation for life. One of the laws
in a social group in play is, "If I want to share
with the rest I must do my share." Social
initiative begins when a boy first feels his help-
fulness in a common play or task, and it assumes
constantly larger control with the coming of
adolescence. It begins in games and with rules
and plays that call for team work. If boys are
"taught to submit to laws in their playing, love
for law will enter into their souls."
"The effect of play upon the boy's social
nature is perhaps of even greater significance
than its effect upon either his intellect or his body.
It is the socializing instinct of the boy. By it
he is perfectly revealed, for it shows his true
self not only to those around him, but it is the
best method of revealing to himself his own inner
disposition and ability. By his play you shall
know the boy, and through his play he comes
best to know himself."^
Play teaches a boy loyalty, team work, co-
operation, the philosophy of sacrifice, humility,
respect for the rights of others, promptness,
self-mastery, subordination to leadership, courage,
and many other virtues necessary to make him
a useful and worthy member of society. Lessons
learned on the playground prepare for the serious-
ness of the greater game of life itself, one phase
of which is so vividly described by Henry New-
bolt in his "Vital Lampada":
"There's a breathless hush in the Close tonight —
Ten to make and the match to win —
A bumping pitch and a blinding light.
An hour to play and the last man in.
* Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 70.
And it's not for the sake of a ribboned coat.
Or the selfish hope of a season's fame.
But his Captain's hand on his shoulder smote —
*Play up! play up! and play the game!'
"The sand of the desert is sodden red —
Red with the wreck of a square that broke —
The Gatling's jammed and the Colonel dead.
And the regiment blind with dust and smoke.
The river of death has brimmed his banks.
And England's far, and Honor a name.
But the voice of a schoolboy rallies the ranks:
Tlay up! play up! and play the game!'
**This is the word that year by year.
While in her place the school is set.
Every one of her sons must hear.
And none that hears it dare forget.
This they all with a joj'ful mind
Bear through life like a torch in flame.
And falling fling to the host behind —
'Play up! play up! and play the game!' "
Play and work are team mates in the business
of socializing the boy. Altruism is no longer a
vague ideal. The boy comes to a period in his
life when he seeks definite forms of social service
and wants to see results. "Give him respon-
sibility; couple him up to the real work of social
betterment; make him feel that he is a worker
along with you toward the same ends, instead
of being himself the object of your endeavor
— and you need not work to make a man of
him. He will make a man of himself."® This
new desire to be of service has given him a new
sense of power. He has now definite recognition
of social values. He feels the worth of unselfish-
ness. He is glad to endure hardships and to
make sacrifices for the sake of others. The
secret of the success of the Phi Alpha Pi Fra-
ternity which the author founded in 1903 is the
"We believe the best and happiest life is the
one spent not for self, but for others. With this
for our ideal, we pledge our hearty loyalty to
our fraternity and to its principles. We will
be earnest seekers after truth, we will be friends
not only to each other, but to all, and we will
do our utmost to advance in true Christian man-
hood. We will stand everywhere and always
for purity and manliness, and strive to make
our fraternity a power among the boys of (name
city or town)."
"Helping the Other Fellow," the motto of the
fraternity, is the boy's definition of altruism.
However, the natural esoteric instinct of adoles-
cence, unless wisely directed, may become a dan-
gerous social motive, as exhibited in many of
the secret fraternities and sororities which have
crept into the public high schools. Exclusiveness,
« Weigle, "The Pupil and the Teacher," p. 63.
snobbery, cliquishness seem to be marked charac-
teristics of these social organizations. It is a
perversion of the gang spirit, for, as somebody
has said, "If you suppress a bad fraternity, you
still have a bad gang/' The fact that a number
of states have legislated these fraternities out of
existence, and college fraternities have voted to
exclude from membership those who were mem-
bers of high school fraternities, is in itself a con-
demnation of the principles upon which they are
organized. High school fraternities and purely
social organizations are responsible for what an
educator calls "social inebriety" and parents are
to blame for allowing boys and girls to take part
in social affairs that destroy health and nerve
When the social motive expresses itself in
service for others, then society is made better
and humanity receives an uphft. "No man liveth
unto himself'*; we are indeed "Every one members
one of another." The conscience of the older
boy must be awakened to the duty of social
betterment. To be doing something is the pas-
sion of youth. One of the fundamental law^ of
scouting is "To do a good turn each day." Baden-
Powell writes: "The boy has a natural instinct
for good if he only sees a practical way to exer-
cise it, and this 'good turn' business meets it
and develops it, and in developing it brings out
the spirit of Christian charity toward his
Sociologists tell us that the highest form of
cooperation is choral singing. It is perfect team
work. Only as the members cooperate with
each other will there be harmony and the product
be beautiful. Glee Clubs may become an effective
means of developing social cooperation among
boys. "Singing is the most universal language,
because it is the language of feeling. Piety,
patriotism, all the social and domestic senti-
ments and love of nature can be thus trained.
Teachers of singing have drifted very far from
the intent of nature in this respect. Love, home,
war, religion, country, and rhythm generally, it
is their first duty to perform in the heart. The
merely technical process of reading notes is a
small matter compared with the education of
the sentiments. Their function is to direct a
gymnastics of the emotions, to see that no false
feelings are admitted, to open the soul to sympa-
thy and social solidarity. . . . Melody, harmony,
the dynamism of soft and loud, quality and
cadence, are the purest epitome and vehicle of
the higher moral qualities. . . . Song should ex-
purgate every evil passion and banish care and
fatigue. Even the Chinese call their crude music
the science of sciences, and think harmony con-
7 Scouting, November 1, 1914.
nected with the function of government and
the state; as Plato said, *a reform in music would
mean a political revolution,' and Melanchthon
called it the theology of the heart. . . . Aristotle
said music molded character as gymnastics do
Narrow-mindedness in a boy is sometimes due
to shyness or drawing away from the society
of others, sometimes to devotion to a few fellows
of his own temperament. What he needs is
social broadening, the meeting of people in vari-
ous walks of life, of varying religious and political
views, travel, and the experience of camping with
other boys. A summer in a well-conducted boys'
camp will do much to broaden his social horizon.
By being placed among strange boys and men
who do not look after his selfish comfort and
cater to his whims as his mother often does,
he is thrown upon his own resources and forced
to become self-reliant and considerate of others.
Scores of boys have returned home from camp,
new men in every sense of the word.
Life's real problems are social, its true values
are those of personal relationship and leadership,
"It takes a soul
To move a body; it takes a high-souled man
To move the masses, even to a cleaner stye:
It takes the ideal to blow a hair's breadth o£F
8 HaU, "Adolescence," Vol. II, p. 31.
The dust of the actual. Ah, your Fouriers failed
Because not poets enough to understand
That life develops from within."
— Mbs. Browning —
"Aurora Leigh," Book II.
The social instincts bring a new sense of law.
Conscience awakens. Right is conceived, no
longer as from an external authority, but as
resting upon inward grounds of obligation.
Leadership of the gang becomes the stepping
stone to leadership of the masses. Boys' ideals
of altruism develop into service for country,
home, and the church — Whence the great need of
wise adult guidance during the plastic period
of youth. Choice of companions, choice of books,
choice of pictures, choice of music, choice of
sports — all share in determining ideals which be-
come the realities of manhood. Low ideals
mean a low plane of living. High ideals mean
a high plane of living. Society needs the leader-
ship of men who have lofty ideals. These leaders
are now in the making. Social instincts and
impulses of boyhood must be harnessed to altru-
istic service and worth-while action. The Church,
as well as the home and the school, must realize
that it is dealing with the future citizen who
must be related to the ends of social endeavor,
as well as a soul to be saved for eternity, for
the only stuff in the world out of which you
can make a man is boy stuff.
"Give us men!
Men from every rank!
Fresh, and free, and frank;
Men of thought and reading.
Men of light and leading.
Men of loyal breeding.
Men of faith and not of faction.
Men of lofty aim in action.
Give us men — I say again.
Give us men!
"Give us men!
Strong and stalwart ones;
Men whom highest hope inspires.
Men whom purest honor fires.
Men who trample self beneath them.
Men who make their country wreathe them.
As her noble sons.
Worthy of her sires!
Men who never shame their mothers.
Men who never fail their brothers.
True, however false are others,
Give us men — I say again.
Give us men!
"Give us men!
Men who when the tempest gathers.
Grasp the standards of their fathers.
In the thickest fight;
Men who strike for home and altar,
(Let the coward cringe and falter,)
God defend the right!
True as truth, though lorn and lonely.
Tender — as the brave are only;
Men who tread where saints have trod.
Men for country and their God;
Give us men! I say again, again.
Give us such men!"
Bishop of Exetbb.
"life's more than breath and the quick round of blood;
*Tis a great spirit and a busy heart.
We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths;
In feelings, not figures on a dial.
"We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best."
Action is one of the major laws of boyhood.
The proper field for morals or moral sentiment
is voluntary human action. Unwilled action has
no moral quality. Activity is, to a very large
degree, the test of intelligence. Morality is a
growth from within, rather than anything that
can be put on from without.
Development is an uphill process. The strug-
gle between the higher and the lower is a war-
fare in which every boy must engage.
"When the fight begins within himself,
Man's worth something. God stoops o'er his head;
Satan looks up between his feet. Both tug:
He's left himself the middle; the soul awakes
"As soon as the activities of any being be-
come acts for ends, they have moral quality.
Non-moral action is action on the plane of mere
instinct or impulse, where consideration plays
"It is the consideration, or the end aimed
at, that makes an act morally good or morally
bad. An act directed toward a bad end is im-
moral, though ignorance of its badness on the
part of the boy may modify our judgment of
his character. Similarly, action for any good
end is moral action, though the character of
the boy be only partly expressed therein.'*^
Early childhood is especially the period of
sensuous growth, and early adolescence the
period of deep moral and religious questionings.
"To train a boy in the science of numbers, and
not to teach him that he is not to make false
combinations; to train him in the art of writing
and not to teach him that he is not to forge his
employer's name; to train him in the secrets
of chemistry and not to train him to respect
his hidden and mysterious power over the life and
welfare of his fellows; to give him intellectual
judgment only, and not to train moral judg-
ment,'* says Robson, "would be an abomination
and curse to the world. "^
1 Coe, "Religious Education," Vol. Ill, p. 161.
« Robson, "Religious Education," 1905, p. 239.
Early boyhood, say from eight to twelve years
of age, is really the formative period in the
acquirement of moral distinctions. When the
boy reaches the turning point, the teen period,
profound changes in mental as well as physical
functions take place and he enters the final
* 'finishing period, ' ' that precedes maturity. Moral
sensibiUties are now quickened, and moral con-
trol is needed. When he was a child, fear kept
him many times from doing wrong, because of
the i>enalty; this was negative, but as he grows
older, observation teaches him that there are
not only bad acts attended with pain, but that
good acts are expected and recognized or ap-
proved. In this way feelings are aroused, and
moral sentiment formed, as well as moral
Moral character can be interpreted in terms
of tendencies to conduct, and to develop char-
acter means to develop the various capacities
that control or govern conduct. These controls
may be roughly grouped in three classes: First,
instinctive control, or inborn tendencies toward
certain types of conduct. The moral instincts
are indefinite and modifiable. They impel boys
to form ideals and to feel obligations, but what
particular ideals they shall have or what obliga-
tions they shall feel is left to be determined by ex-
perience. Conscience needs to be educated. Second,
habit-control, or automatic tendencies that are
consciously acquired and then through repetition
reduced to an automatic or unconscious basis.
It is here where emphasis must be laid. Third,
Judgment-control, or ideas, standards, and prej-
udices that consciously direct human conduct
in situations to which habit and instinct are
inadequate. This period is during the age of
from sixteen to nineteen years.
Harold Begbie in "Twice Born Men" says,
"Life without conscience becomes a destroying
animalism, and conscience without religion has
neither force nor justification for its restraint."
Granting that religion is the basis of all morals,
we will confine ourselves, however, in this chap-
ter to a presentation of the moral characteristics
of boyhood and leave the religious characteris-
tics for a future chapter.
The aim of moral instruction is to teach the
boy to know, to live, and to do right. Character
is organic. The virtues must be built into our
very system. "Sometimes eyestrain reacts upon
the moral nature, and, if not relieved, may re-
sult in a permanently perverted disposition.
Boys become irritable, capricious, obstinate, bad,
because of physical weakness. A pair of glasses
may often prove a means of grace. "^ Many
moral weaknesses are traceable to physical
» Fisher, "Physical Education," Vol. IV, p. 397.
causes. Health is wholeness or holiness of body.
Flabby muscles usually make for flabby morals, for
muscles are definitely related to feelings. Muscles
are the organs of the will. Poise, control, and
deep feeling are intimately related with strong
muscle. Moral energy has its root in feeling,
and without this a boy is not stirred to action.
When a boy loses control of himself, you have
an exhibition of anger and passion which leads
to abuse and intolerance, pathways of control
are established through the nervous system and
a bad habit is formed. Long continued action
of the right sort will result in controlled im-
pulses, instincts, and emotions. "A moral ad-
vance is only made when a thing is actually
done," says Prof. Butler, "and a new pathway
of discharge made in us." "We learn to swim
by swimming, not by studying charts and dia-
grams and mathematical demonstrations. We
learn the Ten Commandments by keeping them,
not by committing them to memory." Stand-
ards of right doing are not established by pre-
cept but by right living. Rugby boys in the day
of Dr. Arnold were known by their moral thought-
fulness. Personality is woven into the very fiber
of morals, and it was Dr. Arnold*s own life of
sympathetic thoughtfulness, rather than his pre-
cepts, which really inspired the boys of Rugby to
be and to live their best.
While all boys have a moral conscience, yet
what is right and what is wrong must be taught
to them the same as other facts. The best
place to teach morals is in the home, but unfor-
tunately modern home conditions are such that
the moral training of boys is complex and diflS-
cult. Moral obligation or "oughtness'* is essential
in creating moral sentiment. Moral law, unlike
the law of the state and other laws, is not im-
posed upon us by external authority, but by
self. It is internal and is expressed by "be this"
and not "do this." Thus a boy becomes the
agent of his own conduct. "Moral law is distinct
from civil law. It is wider in its application
and loftier in its aims. Many things may be
legally right which are morally wrong. . . . The
moral law deals with motives or intentions, the
civil law with actions. You can enforce physical
actions by physical compulsion, but you cannot
thus compel conviction and belief. The civil
law in days gone by compelled a man to go to
church, but it could not compel him to believe."*
It is during the middle teen period of boy-
hood, when thoughtfulness and reasoning are
maturing, that there is often a serious break
between the ideals and beliefs of childhood and
those of approaching maturity, as well as serious
breaks between the boy and his parents. Morals
* Dexter and Garlick, "Psychology in the Schoohoom," p. 270.
can no longer be "driven" or "nagged" into
him, they must now express themselves from
within outward. He now becomes the general
manager of his own moral conduct. The moral
nature, which is inborn, is now coming to its
own, and the boy recognizes not only a personal
standard of morals, but a common standard of
morals as well, and that there are obligations
which he cannot lightly brush aside. "The
adolescent period brings a greater sensitiveness
to social relations, which gives the basis for a
more direct interest in moral relations." While
parents and teachers may instruct, yet the boy
must by experience work out his own ideas and
translate them into self-governing laws. The
initiative must come from within. Knowledge
of a moral law is non-effective unless there is
energizing power or driving force within the boy
to enforce and obey it. "The function of desire
in the moral life," says John Dewey, "is to arouse
energy and stimulate the means necessary to
accomplish the realization of ends otherwise
purely theoretical or esthetic." If the early
training of the boy has been sane and whole-
some, the appeal of conscience, which has been
defined as "reason concerned with moral issues,"
will be obeyed. "When I was a child, I talked
like a child, felt like a child, reasoned like a child :
when I became a man, I put from me childish
ways." (1 Cor. 13:11.) Becoming a man, or
crossing the threshold into the long-desired
Canaan or "Manland" is a period which every
boy longs for and eagerly anticipates.
During this period respect and affection will
serve as powerful restraints against wrong con-
duct, rather than "nagging," "scolding," or even
rewards and prizes. Appeal constantly to his
highest motives and ideals. Obedience may be
taught without a code of "don'ts" and pro-
hibitions, for a boy is not a "sort of croquet
ball that must be forced through certain wickets
by the insistent use of the mallet of authority,
which expresses itself in Don't."^ Let a father
share the life of obedience with his boy. The
firm of "Father and Son" should now be estab-
lished upon a definite basis, a firm dealing in
everything that equips for physical, social, men-
tal, moral, and religious manliness. This new
situation of cooperative partnership in life making,
may mean a serious readjustment in living on
the part of the senior member of the firm, for
the junior member will require skilful handling,
but the father who can keep in step with his
boy will never experience the pain of the ever-
widening gap which many fathers find between
themselves and their boys.
Wundt classifies standard regulations, moral
6 Beck, "Marching Manward," p. 92.
principles, or maxims, into three groups, as
I. Principles relating to self —
(1) So act as to preserve thy self-respect.
(2) Fulfil all thy duties to others.
n. Principles relating to Society —
(1) Respect thy neighbor as thyself.
(2) Serve the community in which thou
m. Principles relating to humanity —
(1) Feel thyself to be an instrument in
the service of the moral ideal.
(2) Sacrifice thyself for the end thou
hast recognized to be thine ideal
"Out of these unchanging imperatives there
grow all minor rules and maxims of life; from
them we can deduce the relative validity of
each, and explain all duties, ends, and mottoes.
Here we can find the true meaning of the advice
of Polonius to his son:
"To thine own self be true.
And it must follow, as the night the day.
Thou canst not then be false to any man "
for the self of every man is a social one, getting
its significance from its relation to others. To
be true to self, then, is to be true to the social
self that society has created. Even the lower
aspects of moral life are therefore dependent
on the higher."®
The youth always demands a rational basis
for morality and it is the business of his home
and his teachers to give him that basis. Throttled
investigation and shackled thought have caused
moral atrophy in many boys, particularly older
ones. Work out carefully with the boy these
principles of Wundt and help him to understand
the reasonableness of living a moral life.
This may be accomplished by instruction
such as is suggested by the Moral Education
League, London, England, which the author has
taken the liberty of adapting to needs of boys.
BOTS FROM 12 TO 14 TEARS:
Cleanliness in person and clothing, in home, school and
street, disease caused by uncleanliness, bad air, impure
Manners. Courtesy and respect toward all, decency
and refinement of speech, sincerity in manners — avoidance
of mere formality, thoughtfulness toward others, respect-
fulness toward the aged, women and girls, table etiquette,
politeness, punctuality, etc.
Truthfulness in speech, in exactness, promises, con-
fidence, love of truth for its own sake, danger of com-
promising with error, its injurious eflFect on character,
living for truth, readiness to receive new truths.
Courage. Moral courage in speaking the truth, in
enduring ridicule, and in being true to one's convictions,
chivalry, devotion of the strong to the weak, manliness,
heroism in the duties of every day life. Follow good
example and resist bad example.
Honesty in judging one's own conduct, in giving others
their due, preserving and protecting property at home»
« DeGanno, "Religious Education," 1904, p. 145.
at school, in public parks, etc. In work: restoration of
lost property, etc.
Thrift. Money: its uses and abuses. Importance of
economy in little things, time, energy, etc. Avoidance of
extravagance, and wastefulness. Temperance a form of
Order. The value of system. "A place for everything and
everything in its place." Value of punctuality and prompt-
ness. Evils of disorder in the home, school, and street.
Perseverance. In work: hard and distasteful tasks,
mastery gained in perseverance. In play: in fighting out
a lost game. In forming good habits and overcoming bad
ones. In self-improvement. In well-doing.
Justice. The love of justice; the resolve to be just
to others, even when public opinion is against us. Mercy.
Just and unjust relations between employers and em-
ployed; between government and peoples. The rights of
Generosity. Forgiveness, remembering our own faults.
Forbearance. Charitableness in thought. Rejoicing at
The Family. What we owe to the home. Duties to-
ward parents. Relations between brothers and sisters.
*'Give and take." Mutual service in the home, politeness
and consideration in dealing with servants.
Social Organization. Individual and collective owner-
ship. Responsibilities of ownership. Care of our clothes,
books, etc. Respect for the rights of others. Coopera-
tion in the home, in trade, in professions, between citi-
Patriotism. Love of country; national emblems. Duty
we owe to our country; how we may serve our country.
Law and order.
Work. Pride in thorough work. Use of leisure time.
The value of work in overcoming difficulties, etc.
Boys fhom 14 to 16 years:
Self-respect. Honoring the best that is in us. Impor-
tance of self-respect in act, word, and thought. Self-
respect undermined by servility and eye service. Regard
for self-respect of others. Moral dangers that follow any
loss of self-respect. "Toadyism" and snobbishness. The
need for a higher standard of self-respect.
Justice. In judging others to make allowance for
temperament, and for their ignorance, temptations, and
prejudices. To redress wrongs and champion the right.
A knowledge of magistrates, their duties and respon-
sibilities. Courts of justice: their constitutions, value,
and limitations. Equality of all before the law.
Work. The necessity for and dignity of labor. Hum-
drum work. Systematic and strenuous labor, its bracing
effect — physical, intellectual, and moral; the demoraliz-
ing effect of idleness. Earning a living; responsibilities
and social value of different pursuits. The wealth of the
country: how it is produced. Work as a sure expression
of the worker's character.
Thrift. Forethought enables us to provide for unfore-
seen events and difficulties, strengthens independence,
promotes self-improvement, and enables us to advance
The Will. The training of the will. The right to be
done intelligently. Moral laziness, indecision, putting off,
Patriotism. The vote, its nature and responsibilities;
the ballot. The machinery of government and the duty
of the individual citizen. True patriotism, devotion to
our country's highest interests. America's greatness and
her obligations to other nations.
Peace and War. Duty of citizens when war threatens:
control of passions and avoidance of panic. War, when
justifiable; self-defense against aggression. In support
of oppressed peoples. The evils of war. The value
Recreation. The need for recreation and pastimes.
Games as an outlet for friendly rivalry and emulation.
Value of play as a socializing factor. Hobbies. The
development of the body and its powers. **A sound mind
in a sound body." The value of athletics in developing
character; playing the game. Danger of giving too much
thought to athletics. Sports, beneficial and injurious;
avoidance of cruelty.
The Development of Personal Relationships. Children and
parents, brothers and sisters, other relatives. Friendship,
choice of friends, loyalty and candor in friendship, com-
radeship. The duty of understanding those outside our
Temperance in Drink. Physiological effects of alcohol.
Effects of intemperance on the body, character, and
career. Effects of intemperance on the home, on society
— e. g., lunacy and crime. Value of temperance in all
things. The same treatment in regard to tobacco.
Honesty. In business: mutual confidence essential. In
social and public life. Bribes and secret commissions in
commercial life. Honest service for wages paid; fair pay
for honest work. Profession and practice.
Conscience. The claim of conscience, individual and
social. The enlightenment of conscience; the letter and the
spirit of the moral law. The development of conscience.
Humanity. Personal obligation to help the old, young,
weakly, unfortunate, oppressed. Love for mankind; its
inspiring power, self-sacrifice.
Boys fbom 16 to 19 tears:
The Family. How the separateness of the family has
intensified human feeling; joy and sorrow in the home.
Restraints of the home, their wholesomeness and obliga-
tions. Family pride and family honor; love of home.
The duties which members of the family owe to their
wider community, e. g., neighbors, locality, state.
Social Organization. Economic necessity for industrial
combinations; collective bargaining. Responsibilities of
industrial combinations. Origin and usefulness of capital.
Trades unions: scope and work, power and danger. Im-
portance of a high standard in public opinion; what each
can do to secure it. Municipal and state ownership and
Cleanliness. As a type of moral purity — thought,
Honor. Pledges, promises, confidence, fidelity. False
ideas of honor: duelling, menial work, etc. Acting honor-
ably under the influence of anger, in the midst of heated
contest, and while engaged in competition.
Peace and War. Aggression: its injustice and evil con-
sequences. International relations; how nations can help
each other. The value of arbitration.
Patriotism. The sacrifice of individual to national
interests; national heroes and reformers. Respect for
the nationalities of other peoples. The evolution of so^
ciety; the ideal state.
The Development of Social Relationship. The instinct of
sociability in insects, birds, and animals, leading to — mu-
tual protection, social services. Exemplified by tribal
savages, barbarians, village communities, ancient and
medieval cities. How tribes and states coalesced into
nations. International Brotherhood: the interdependence
and solidarity of the human race.
Self-regard and Social Service. The two fundamental
instincts in animal and human nature: self-preservation
and mutual aid. Duties of self-regard and self -develop-
ment. Dependence of the state on the character of its
individual citizens. The value of social service to the
individual who performs it. Dependence of individual
welfare on the prosperity and good order of the community
or State; the existence and security of private property
dependent upon protection by the State and laws.
The Will. The duty of educating the will; the value
of self-denial in little things. Persistence in right-doing;
firmness in resisting temptations. Devotion to noble
aims; strength, beauty, and nobility of character.
Recreation. The use and abuse of social entertain-
ments, dancing, theaters, etc. The enjoyment of the
beauties of nature, music, and the arts. The pleasure
of reading. The recreative study of science. Making
the means of enjoyment generally accessible.
Toleration. Respect for the opinions and religious be-
liefs of others. Respect for all sincere opponents. The
duty of examining into the views of others. Distinction
between toleration and indifference. The growth of
Betting and Gambling. Factitious excitement. Dis-
honesty of gaining money without giving real value.
The demoralizing effects of betting and gambling on
character. The disastrous effects of betting and gam-
bling on sports, the home, and national life.
Responsibility of Older Boys. To prevent bullying or
teasing. To put down evil talk. To organize games,
recreations, etc., for younger boys. To enforce school
rules, moral laws, etc. Example of older boy more in-
fluential than precepts of adults. The far reaching future
effects of the influence of older boys for good or for evil.
Ideals. The value of an ideal for life; the choice of
a calling. The danger of accepting the average standard
of good as the best. The growth of our ideal; childhood,
youth, etc. Perfection of character. Growth of social
ideals; a perfected humanity. Growth of religious ideals;
a perfected life. The retrospect of a noble life.
This syllabus of moral instruction can only
be of value in helping the boy in developing
moral characteristics, when used in a tactful
and wise manner, and not in a dry, mechanical
manner. Moral color-blindness, and low moral
admirations, can only be eliminated from boys
through the "expulsive power of a new afiFection."
Character depends partly upon moral perception
or insight, partly upon habit.
"Doth not the soul the body sway?
And the responding plastic clay
Receive the impress every hour
Of the pervading spirit's power?
"Look inward if thou wouldst be fair:
To beauty guide the feelings there.
And this soul-beauty, bright and warm.
Thy outward being will transform."
— Bertha Hasseltine.
An act of good moral character should receive
its return of honor. "Humanity," says Colin
A. Scott, "is almost instinctively ready to
oblige, to serve and to receive honor from those
really felt to be on a higher level. And . . . when
those who are looked up to by others receive
a service without returning honor and admira-
tion . . . they are meanly and proudly attempting
a fraud upon human nature. If the Good Samar-
itan cared nothing for the feelings that would
be awakened in the traveler to Jericho, but
was only serving God, he missed the point."
It is this failure of recognition of the good within
the boy on the part of older people which has
discouraged many older boys and made them
indifferent to the appeal of the best.
"The responsiveness of the soul and body in
the domain of morals is a law of our nature, in
which are consequences of the greatest moment.
The soul can be corrupted by the body and the
body by the soul." As a boy thinketh in his
heart so is he, therefore the mental association
with everything that is pure and wholesome,
means living up to one's best. Dr. Philip S.
Moxom in his "Moral Education" says: "It is
a greater and more difficult thing to live, in the
true, deep sense, than it is to get a living. Boys
must be made to feel and then to see that honesty
is better than brilliancy, that integrity is more
than riches, that good character is a prize val-
uable beyond the power of all material means
to measure. ... A clever intellect without a ten-
der conscience makes a Mephistopheles. We are
seeking to make men who shall know their duty
to the world, and have the will to do it. That
is an end to call forth our deepest wisdom and
our strongest endeavors. On the achievement
of that end depends the soundness and permanent
prosperity of the nation." Let us see the man
in the boy.
"In the acorn is wrapped the forest.
In the little brook, the sea;
The twig that will sway with the sparrow today
Is tomorrow's tree.
There is hope in a mother's joy.
Like a peach in its blossom furled.
And a noble boy, a gentle boy.
And a manly boy, is king of the world.
**The power that will never fail us
Is the soul of simple truth;
The oak that defies the stormiest skies
Was upright in its youth.
The beauty no time can destroy
In the pure, young heart is furled;
And a worthy boy, a tender boy,
A faithful boy, is king of the world."
— Geoeqe Shepabd Bubleigh.
"You hear that boy laughing? You think he's all fun;
But the angels laugh, too, at the good he has done."
— Oliver Wendell Holmes — The Boys.
Underneath the fun and mischief, noise and
dirt of a boy, beats a heart that responds quickly
to the appeal of religion, especially if the appeal
is in the form of doing rather than being. Re-
ligion to a boy means motive power to give up
wrong and do right. The Sunday school was
singing, *T want to be an angel and with the
angels stand," when Billy's teacher discovered
that he was not singing. "Why aren't you
singing, Billy.^" asked the teacher. "I'm sing-
ing the way I feel," responded honest Billy.
Being an angel did not appeal to Billy, and he
refused to tell an untruth even in his singing.
What Billy wanted to be was a man, a red-
blooded man of heroic action, and not a cherub.
Rehgion to a boy is not sitting still and being
good, it is doing worth-while deeds. Somehow
a boy resents being called good, and many times
he is the other kind of hypocrite in that he
would have you believe he was bad when really
not bad. He is the victim of modern discus-
sions, in which people seem to feel sorry for
the boy who is not a tough or a delinquent.
The delinquent seems to get the attention, the
kind words, and the flowers, while the really
first-class boy who lives a normal wholesome
life of right doing is passed by. It is the "lonely"
age when the religious emotion instinct is at
its height. His heart is hungry for the best,
but he doesn't always know when or how to
find it, and therefore he attracts attention by
bluffing badness. The eariy adolescent age, be-
tween the ages of twelve and sixteen, is the
period of misunderstanding, the time when sym-
pathy, love, patience, hopefulness, and firmness
are required from those who are responsible
"Ideas of Gk)d and duty and religious ob-
servance have been external to the child during
his eariier days, but now they take root in his
life and have a vital significance. Heretofore
they have been embodied in precept or custom
in his own playful imagination. Now they
have begun to be his own."^
His "clarification," as Starbuck terms it, occurs
around thirteen years of age when rehgious
"forms" begin to lose attraction and the desire
1 Starbuck, "The Psychology of Religion," p. 196.
for spiritual life deepens. The religious awaken-
ing seems to supplement puberty. Stature in-
creases, "then muscular strength increases; new
interests, new passions arise, new dangers, of
course; and it is the time of greatest prevalence
in the line of crime. Later statistics show that
before the close of the years of adolescence most
of the crimes are committed — not the deepest
and darkest crimes, but the most. So that it
seems as though good and evil struggle together
for the mastery of the human soul at no other
time of life so much as at this time."^ Statis-
tics also show that if conversion has not occurred
before twenty, the chances are small that it
ever will be experienced; that the age of deepest
religious conviction is between twelve and four-
teen years; the age of conversion between sixteen
and eighteen years and the age of imiting with
the Church is around sixteen years.
When we know that eleven men imited with
the Church between the ages of ten and twenty-
five to every one that united with the Church
outside these years, when we know that hardly
thirty per cent of the Sunday school enrolment
is made up of boys and young men in their
teens, then we begin to recognize the need of
giving our best thought and effort to discover-
ing the cause of these conditions, and earnestly
* Hall, "Principles of Religious Education," p. 182.
seeking a remedy. One way of changing this
condition is by the establishment of higher
standards of teacher requirements which will
enlist men who will pay the price of this par-
ticular kind of leadership, for leadership of this
type costs more than a mere desire and a sym-
pathetic attitude. The standard set by G.
Stanley Hall is not beyond reach when he says
"our churches are coming to realize now as
never before that ... it requires higher talent,
greater capacity, more genius, more full mastery
of knowledge to teach children than adults. . . .
Mastery in the knowledge of religion, sympathy
with Christ, that makes us reaUy interested in
His mind and will, is best tested by capacity
to lead and minister to childhood."^
K reUgion, as Dr. Liddon defines it, is "personal
communion with God, yielding fruit in action,
or the bringing spiritual sanction to bear on
ordinary life," then we cannot begin too early
to teach reUgion as a motive power in a boy's
life. This cannot be done in the phraseology
and formulas of the pulpit, but through tact
and sympathy which will see instuictively how
to catch the impressionable moments in a boy*s
life, and then in a few words, to engrave upon
the mind the thought of a high ideal and the
greatness of living a Christ-controlled life. "Boys
3 Hall, "Principles of Religious Education," p. 189.
and grandmothers,'* says Kirtley, "have the
same religion, even as they may eat the same
food at the same table. But in her that food
reappears in a bent body, soft, babylike flesh,
beautiful grey hair, and extensive wrinkles,
while in him it becomes an erect body, knotted
muscles, stubby hair, and smooth skin. They
get their religion in the same way — the same
loving Father, the same gracious Saviour, the
same instructing and inspiring Bible, but in
one it reappears as grandmother, in the other
as boy."^ Too long we have been looking for an
adult type of religious expression in the boy
instead of a natural boy expression. A boy has
a hunger for God as he has for food and friends
and fun, but he does not always know what
it means or how to express himself. Objective
righteousness is the thing he is looking for and
which we must help him find. Religion to him
is a life rather than a philosophy. Boys are
the greatest radicals and at the same time the
greatest conservatives on earth.
The instinct of worship is inherent in the
instincts of the human race. Oiu* ancestors
worshipped and we inherit, by a race impulse,
a powerful tendency toward religion. All men
from the lowest to the highest have been seekers
after God. Plutarch says: "I have seen people
* Kirtley, "That Boy of Yours," p. 240.
without cities and organized governments or
laws, but people without shrines and deities I
have not seen," and Ratzel says: "We cannot
analyze a single race on its spiritual side with-
out laying bare the germs and rootfires of re-
ligion. Ethnography knows no race devoid of
A boy passes through three stages in the
evolution of religious expression. The first stage,
up until about twelve years of age, is the im-
pressionistic period. Grod is a venerable man
seated in the clouds or upon a great throne,
and heaven is a beautiful garden or a golden
city. He has definite ideas of that which later
becomes vague and mystical. It is the period
when he unquestionably accepts statements by
those whom he trusts. His faith in the great-
ness and goodness of God, and his dependence
upon Him is unshakable. His religion is pure,
simple, and real. His first impression of prayer
which came to him as he kneeled by his mother's
side in the quiet of his bedroom and as he saw
her bowed head, and heard her reverent tone
of voice, never can be erased from memory's
page. Here the training of faith begins. It
is the mother's opportunity to begin to impress
upon him the great truth that behind all visible
manifestations of life is a great invisible Power.
"Science may call it Force; Art may call it
Harmony; Philosophy may call it World Order;
various religions have called it God, but Chris-
tianity calls it *Our Father.' " Says Mrs. Harri-
son: "This is an important moment in his life,
the first groping after the unseen. Are not
the great, the powerful, the lasting things of
life all invisible? Turning to nature for illustra-
tions, we find the great attractive and repulsive
forces have thrown up the vast mountain ranges
and cleft them in twain; gravitation has settled
their crumbling fragments into level plains, and
caused the water courses to sweep in given
directions; capillary attraction has drawn the
water up into the seed cells and caused plant
life to germinate and vegetation to cover the
plains; chemical action and assimilation have
changed vegetable and animal food into human
blood; appetites have caused the human being
to seek food and shelter and the opportunity to
propagate his kind; parental instinct has given
rise to family life; public sentiment has maintained
the sanctity of the marriage tie and the safety
of family possessions; business credit has made
trade life possible; patriotism has banded these
communities of civic life into national life;
religion is yet to unify the nations of the earth
into one common brotherhood. All these are
invisible forces. What is the tribute paid to
character over and above wealth and beauty, but
a tribute to the unseen? Without friendship,
sympathy, love, aspiration, ideality, what would
life be worth?"^ "First impressions are the root-
fibers of the child's understanding, which is
developed later," says Froebel.
The boy naturally evolves from the first stage
into the second, the p>eriod when through nature
he learns to find God as the ever-living Creator
and Ruler of the Universe. The very beauty
and grandeur of nature reveal the character
of God, for, says Martin Luther, "God writes
the gospel not in the Bible alone, but in trees
and flowers and clouds and stars." At Camp
Becket, the writer's laboratory, is a "Chapel-
"A Cathedral, boundless as our wonder.
Whose quenchless lamps the sun and moon supply.
Its choirs the winds and waves, its organ thunder.
Its dome the sky,"
where hundreds of boys have experienced the
nearness of God through the mysterious touch
of the wind, or through gazing at the towering
mountains with their suggestion of strength, or
in the very quietness of the eventide.
A camp fire becomes a mighty factor in the
development of a boy's rehgious life. Not only
may great moral lessons be taught as boys, with
the charm of fire-gazing in their faces, sit around
* Mrs. Harrison, "A Study of Child Nature," p. 194.
the crackling wood, but through the fire is
symbolized the purification and refining process
of life. "Tried as by fire." Fire was the emblem
of the gift of the Holy Spirit. It is the stim-
ulant of the imagination. Camping should have
as its great objective that of leading boys "through
nature to nature's God."
"Nature worship," says Prof. Fiske, "is often
an important stage in the natural religion of
early boyhood. The growing love for the beau-
tiful in form and color, added to the sense of the
mystical, centers the child admiration in the
world of nature which God has made so beau-
tiful. Particularly strong is this religious im-
pulse in early springtime in normal childhood
in the country. As the miracle of the spring
resurrection returns, the healthy boy often finds
keen delight in his real communion with nature.
Daily he consults her oracles, listens to her
secrets, and worships at her shrine. The Heav-
enly Father has many wonderful lessons to
teach the growing boy just at this time, and
unless the boy has a chance to learn them, his
imagination is never again so strong, his sense
of the beautiful dwindles and with it much of
the aesthetic power which should enrich his heart
life with the poet's vision and the artist's per-
spective and proportion. Just now with a mi-
croscope you may help the boy to find God.
The larger aspects of nature, as well as the more
minute, have their grand messages for the boy
soul. Renan has reminded us that the clouds
and the thunder and the mountains had a vast
influence in shaping the religious ideas of the
Hebrews. ... It is from the grandeur of nature
that we learn the majesty of God. While the
clouds lure the boy's imagination through sky
pastures of riotous fancy and suggest to him
the boundless riches of space, it is from the
mountains he learns his littleness and from the
thunder he learns his weakness. Both suddenly
teach him to be humble in the presence of their
Around fourteen years of age he evolves into
the third stage, which, for the want of a better
term, may be called the ethical stage. There
now comes a great longing for a larger spiritual
life, which must find its expression in aspira-
tions, longings, adoration, service, the Knights
of King Arthur or the Sir Galahad period. He
is beginning to outgrow his egoism and selfishness
and his interests broaden. We must be careful
now that religion does not become a mere habit,
or automatic, or a dead formalism.
Personal loyalty and hero worship are in the
ascendency. He is searching for a great leader.
"The only religion which will appeal to him is
" Fiflke, "Boy Life and Self Government," p. 249.
one of heroism, endurance, and of powerful,
lofty, and masterful personality." "His king,"
says Prof. Tyler, "must be presented to his
mind as stronger as well as better than he, and
as altogether worthy of his unswerving loyalty,
obedience, and service. He will have no other. "^
Here is the supreme opportunity of the teacher
as well as parent to encourage the boy in his
natural decision to yield his loyalty and devo-
tion to Jesus Christ, the world's greatest hero.
His religious awakening is natural, and should
not be repressed but given opportxmity for ex-
pression. Conscience is now becoming his guide.
To make conscience robust instead of morbid
and hypersensitive is the real problem. Help
him develop a healthy outward glance, take
advantage of his undaunted courage and ambi-
tion. The very audacity of his faith and the
belief in his ability to do big things should be
recognized as an asset rather than a liability.
Now is the time for him to harness to worth-
while activities, this inner feeling for functioning
and this desire for expression in service. "It
is the epoch of the reign, not of cold judgment,
but of feeling and of the heart, 'out of which
are the issues of life.' Paul, places love, with
faith and hope, far above knowledge, which
Vanisheth away, for we know in part.' Perhaps
7 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 185.
Paul was right after all. The heart is often
fully as wise as the head. Do not undervalue
or curb too closely his generous impulses."®
Naturally conversion follows his spontaneously
religious awakening, as statistics show conclusively
that "storm and stress" and conviction are close
kin. "If there is no resistance to the great
expenditure of the new energy, then results a
burst of life, fresh consciousness and apprecia-
tion of truth, a personal hold on virtue, joy and
the sense of well being; but if there is no channel
open for its free expression, it wastes itself
against imyielding and imdeveloped faculties, and
is recognized by its pain accompaniment, distress,
unrest, anxiety, heat of passion, groping after
something, brooding, and self-condemnation. This
stage of adolescence is the j>eriod of most rapid
physiological readjustments, and consequently is
characterized by great instability."^
The wonderful narrative of the facts concern-
ing the Welsh Revival by the late W. T. Stead,
who was at the time the editor of the London
Review of Reviews is significant. In it he gave
to the public for the first time the account of
his own conversion in 1859 at the age of eleven
He tells how one night in bed he was seized
8 Tyler, "Growth and Education," p. 187.
9 Starbuok, "The Psychology of Religion," p. 227.
with an appalling sense of his own sinfulness.
He sobbed and cried in the darkness over his
wrong-doing. Then there came to him a pas-
sionate longing to escape from condemnation and
be forgiven. At last his mother overheard him,
took him into her arms, and told him comfort-
ing things about the love of God, and how it
was made manifest by Jesus Christ, who had
suffered in our stead, to save us from condemna-
tion and make us heirs of heaven. Mr. Stead
says: "I have no remembrance of anything be-
yond the soothing caress of my mother's words.
When she left me the terror had gone, and I
felt sufficiently tranquil to go to sleep." A year
later when he was twelve, his experience at
Silcoates Hall, a private boarding school, is
interesting, when a half dozen of the boys met
each day in a summer-house in the garden,
to read a chapter, and pray. Again, quoting his
words, he says: "Suddenly one day, after the
prayer-meeting had gone on for a week or two,
there seemed to be a sudden change in the at-
mosphere. How it came about no one ever
knew. All that we did know was that there
seemed to have descended from the sky, with
the suddenness of a drenching thunder-shower,
a spirit of intense, earnest seeking after God,
for the forgiveness of sins, and the consecration
to his service. How well I remember the solemn
hush of that memorable day and night, m the
course of which forty out of the fifty lads pub-
licly professed conversion."
A few days after reading this account there
came in my mail a letter from a boy who
had just reached his sixteenth birthday, a boy
who had tasted sin in all its hideousness, even,
for a few hours, behind prison bars. He was
at a meeting which I conducted in the city
where he lived, and after a struggle he made
the decision to accept Jesus Christ as his Saviour
and Friend. For about ten days he succeeded
nobly but in a moment of weakness he sought
the old gang and was back in the old ways. On
his birthday I wrote him a letter. This was
"My dear Friend:
I was much surprised and very pleased to
hear from you today. Your letter came just in
time to strengthen the decision I had come to
last week. Being inspired by the conference
meetings to win the fight and become one of
Jesus Christ's own boys. . . . You ask me in your
letter to go to my room, think the thing over,
and then get down on my knees and pray to
the only One who knows every thought in my
heart. I have already done this. I have lain
in my bed night after night, thinking the matter
over and despising myself because I could not
come to a firm decision. Then I would get out
of bed and pray God, through the Saviour, to
give me strength. And now I feel that my
prayers have been answered, as I have come
to a decision, and that decision is to lead hence-
forth a true Christian life. I have told my
father and mother of this, and they were very
much pleased, and promised to do everything
in their power to help me. . . . This is the first
letter I remember having written to anyone
except my parents and I may not have ex-
pressed myself as I should wish, but I feel that
you can understand my feelings when I say I
have won the great fight and intend to remain
This boy, forty-seven years after the experience
of Mr. Stead, was led into a decision for Chris-
tian living in practically the same way — an
illustration of what is meant by the psycholog-
ical moment, and the great opportunity for an
adult to render the needful service. Parent
and teacher should be on the alert to discern
this critical moment in the boy's deep religious
struggle. To help a boy to win this struggle for
religious expression and to decide for his loyalty
to Jesus Christ and His standard of living, is
a form of life-saving service fully as important
as pulling him out of a whirlpool of angry waters.
Loyalty to Jesus Christ should naturally lead
to uniting with the Church. Through careful
guidance and instruction, the boy during the
age period of fourteen to seventeen years should
be led to make a public confession of his alle-
giance to Jesus Christ. This should be in a
normal manner, not by some outburst of enthu-
siasm, but by an act of the will. Decisions are
made in adolescence. Expanding life compels
a youth to come face to face with many issues.
It will include either uniting with the Church
or postponement until a more convenient time.
To refuse to decide is in itself a decision.
The attitude of the youth toward church mem-
bership will to a large degree be determined by the
attitude of his parents, and older people with
whom he is acquainted. Many boys have come
to this important stage of their religious life,
only to find a barricade to church membership
erected by over-cautious parents who believe he
is "too young'* or that "he does not understand
what he is doing," or "that he may not hold
out." Here is the cause of the down grade of
many a boy, as well as the heartaches of scores
of pastors. No matter what the human mis-
takes of the Church have been in the past, the
boy needs the Church and the Church needs
the boy. Prof. Votaw puts it in this manner:
"I wish to say that the boy needs church mem-
bership from the age of twelve on. It is one
of the greatest expedients devised for helping
a boy through the storm and stress period of
life. BUs church membership may be, in many
cases it has been, a sheet anchor to windward
holding him off the rocks. Belonging to the
Church during the adolescent period, holding
oneself to the pledge of membership, standing
out positively for the Christian life, seems to
me the most important social, moral, and religious
relationship a boy can enter upon. The essential
thing is that in the adolescent years he assume
the individual responsibilities of his life, put his
trust in God, commit himself to God*s ideal for
men, take up such work as he can do, enter
into the larger relationships that now open to
him, set himself to achieve the finest manhood,
to render the highest service, and to make his
life as great a success as possible. He will no-
where find so high an ideal as the Christian
ideal; he will nowhere find so much companion-
ship and help in his course as among Christian
Never criticize their church, the pastor or the
members in the presence of boys, but encourage
them to love their church, to be loyal and full
of faith, ready to answer to its great call for
The function of worship is somewhat over-
looked in the development of a boy*s religious
life. "In worship, as an expression of the re-
Hgious state of mind," says Hartshorne, "the
^ Hartshome, "Worship in the Sunday School," p. 22.
highest values are symbolized and sought. They
are here brought clearly to consciousness and
renewed in vitahty. Worship thus becomes a
means of social control, for it serves to cultivate
and revitalize in the individual the appreciation
of objects which in its best moments society has
come to regard as of the highest value." The
Church is beginning to recognize the necessity
of adapting its services to the needs of childhood
and youth. The musical features, the responsive
readings, the prayer, and the spoken word all
appeal to him, especially when they are so ar-
ranged that action and right living will result
rather than mere formalism.
When the youth enters into his eighteenth or
nineteenth year, there comes over him a mental
turmoil. Doubts of beliefs and ideals are com-
mon. He is now thinking, as well as working
out his own salvation with fear and trembling.
He is no longer a boy. The struggle for man-
hood is now on and he is finding out that the
conflict between good and evil is no summer's
play. It cannot be evaded. It is now difiicult
to keep him in the Sunday school and in church.
"He feels a revulsion from all sorts of religious
emotionalism and you cannot touch him with a
year of prayer meetings, even of the quiet,
modern type," observes Prof. Fiske. Boyhood
visions have been disillusioned — ^he is tinctured
with a certain kind of cynicism and doubt. It
is during this terrific struggle for character —
Christian character — that he needs friendship,
constant, abiding, sympathetic friendship, rather
than criticism. He is now looking for the real
thing, and honors above everything else real
nobility of character that is devoid of sham.
He is usually silent about it, for he is afraid of
being misunderstood. He has his own ideas on
religion and plenty of doubt as well. Again
quoting that master interpreter of boy-life.
Prof. Fiske: "He needs a rational basis for his
life creed, and he needs it soon, or he never will
get it. It must be proved to him in some natural,
undogmatic way (or better, flashed upon his
intuitions) that the well-rounded manhood which
he covets needs culture on the spiritual side to
complete its symmetry. In short, he needs, not
the effeminate sort, but a man's religion, which
will appeal to his whole manhood. For the
young man is not all spirit. He has a body to
keep strong and well, and he welcomes any
means which will help him in his life problem.
He needs the right kind of fellowship, the heart
of good friendship and the moral backbone of
upright comradeship. . . . Above all he needs
to be on friendly terms with Jesus Christ. Give
him the great protection of the Christ love, the
high incentive of the Christ ideals, the mighty
impulse of the Christian purpose, the Christ
loyalty — with the brotherly comradeship of the
Christian Church; and you have armed him with
all the panoply of God. He will win his fight.""
**A creed is a rod.
And a crown is of might;
But this thing is God:
To be man, with thy might;
To stand straight in the strength of thy spirit
And live out thy life as the light."
— Pbesidbnt William DeWitt Htob.
11 Fiake, "Boy Life and Self Govenunent," pp. 268, 269.
**The world has work for us; we must refuse
No honest task, nor uncongenial toil:
Fear not your feet to toil nor robe to soil
Nor let your hands grow white for want of use."
— Allen Palmer Alleeton.
What shall a boy's life be? This is a most
serious problem with both the boy and his
parents. "As the twig is bent the tree is in-
clined," goes an old saying. Judging from the
large number of vocationally "bent" individuals
in the world, one is led to believe that much
of the bending was inclined downward during
the moldable period of their youth or else, like
Topsy, "they just growed," whithersoever in-
clined. "As the boy is started so the man prob-
ably will be." Many of the failures in life as
well as much of the unhappiness and discontent,
and shall we say crime, is traceable to our ap-
parent inability to harness the aptitudes in the
boy to definite vocations. Ask the boy of today,
"What do you want to become?" or "What
are you going to do?" and invariably you get
the reply, "I don't know,'* or, "Oh, anything
that comes along," or else they plan to capture
a job with big pay and little work.
In answer to the question: "What occupation
or profession are you going to follow as a life
work?" 375 boys gave the following replies:
Young Men's Christian Association Work
Farming or Forestry
107 were undecided. 268 chose forty professions, trades
Ninety per cent of the boys were over sixteen
years of age and attending high school. They
were the representative boys of 86 different
cities and towns in two states. One reason
why so large a number were considering the
work of the Young Men's Christian Association,
was that they were Association boys and in
attendance at a conference of older boys con-
ducted by the Association. Forty different
professions, trades, and occupations were named
by the boys. The fact that 107 of the 375 had
not yet decided is evidence of the need of voca-
tional guidance and advice by parents and
schools, so that boys may be steered away from
"blind alley" jobs and "any old thing that
Aptitude comes as much from special training
as from natural gifts. Inclination is largely a
matter of desire and of the will; it is habituated
"Give the boy a hammer and
A pocketful of nails.
Turn him loose at making things —
Soon there will be wails.
Sobs, then sniffles — then he's out
Trying it anew;
That's the thing that counts in life —
Grit to see it through.
"Guess we're boys most all our lives;
Only sometimes we
Lay our hammers down too soon.
Wishing we could be
Smooth at things as some one else.
Folks are mighty few
Who are born all- wise; the rest
Stuck, and saw it through."
— Chicago News.
To make things is a natural desire. Working
with tools is common among boys. A jack-
knife is a valuable p>ossession to be found in
the pK)cket of every normal boy. If this desire
or aptitude for working with tools is encouraged
or wisely directed, nothing else will so clearly
demonstrate the difference between right and
wrong as constructive work, which enables the
boy to discover for himself any error which he
may make. He learns to test the result of his
own work and to despise inaccuracy. It encour-
ages neatness, accuracy, and honesty. A lie
in wood can be seen. Jacob Riis once said:
"When I first saw the Viking Ship dug out in
Norway, the thing which most impressed me was
the mark of a lazy carpenter's axe upon the
prow of the ship. He had been too lazy to grind
his axe and the record was there plain to be
seen after a thousand years."
The "playing store" of early chDdhood soon
changes into the bartering and trading of boy-
hood. A boy's pockets are the index of his
wealth. Fifty-seven varieties of articles traded or
"swapped" with other embryo merchants, or
tradesmen, may be foimd in this wonderful
treasure house of the boy — ^his pockets. Whether
he will become the honest tradesman or a tricky
merchant of the future is determined very largely
by the busmess ethics of boyhood. Honesty,
genuineness, fairness, and the square deal are
business virtues first learned in the school of
youth. A newspaper route has been not only
a financial asset but a means of developing in
the boy the habits of promptness, accuracy,
perception, and honesty.
Every boy should be studied and watched.
Analyze each action and inclination and apti-
tude. It will be a great mistake to force him
or hurry him to decide upon his life work. "Do
not fit him to a calling," says Fowler; "find a
calling that fits him. There are a thousand
means of livelihood. The boy has but one
prominent ability. Discover that ability, and
feed it with the kind of food it needs, that it
may develop into a good thing for the boy and
a good thing for the community.*'^
"Physically and mentally the human offspring
begins at the lower stratum of animal hfe. What
he will be, not what he is, gives him the right
of consequence. K he has characteristics, he
does not show them. If he thinks, he does not
know what he thinks, and therefore he presents
little perceptible indication of mind — capacity.
His only marked characteristic, or rather, his
one display of instinct, is a continual desire for
food. He can eat, if food be given him. He
doesn't know enough to forage for it. Unkept
and unfed, he dies. To eat is the substance of
his ambition, and when he is not eating, or
trying to eat, he is doing nothing, or is smiling,
or crying, or sleeping. He is of importance, not
for what he is, but for what he may be, or is
likely to be, or it is hoped he will be. He is a
Kttle, round, helpless, thin-skinned lump of ex-
pectation; entirely helpless, completely dependent,
and in a present state of total worthlessness.
Yet the maiden aunt and sentimental mother
may think that they see in the just-born boy
every conspicuous trait from every branch of
two family trees."
"When the boy is a few years old, family
1 Fowler, "The Boy— How to Help Him to Succeed," p. 13.
pride and parental conceit, correctly and in-
correctly, and often dangerously, discover in
him everything they desire to discover." "Up
to the tenth or twelfth year-point, the boy's
physical condition deserves the first attention
with, of course, the absorption of the *Three R's*
"The boy now begins to show some permanent
likes and dislikes. The keen observer . . . may
discover the beginning of some definite charac-
teristic, or some particular ability, or some
"At the age of ten years, the boy is old enough,
and mentally strong enough, to begin to appre-
ciate and to be materially influenced by his
surroundings. . . . He is mature enough to reason,
he is old enough to choose his associates and
he does. He is beginning to travel upon the
high-road of his life."^
It is just here that many times he is left with-
out intelligent guidance to sink or swim. For
at about fourteen y^rs of age there is a great
outpouring of boys from school to go to work.
Then follows the sad tale of "from one job to
another" like the rudderless vessel upon the
great ocean of life. Do you wonder why? "The
time is coming," says Everett W. Lord, "when
we will not allow a near-sighted boy to become
2 Fowler, "The Boy— How to Help Him Succeed," p. 18.
a chaufiFeur, a dull-eared girl to become a stenog-
rapher, a chronically careless youth to become
a druggist, or an intellectual lightweight to be-
come a preacher," but on the other hand, some
effort will be made to guide the boy of construc-
tive mind, artistic bent, and mechanical skill
into something which will afford him a wider
range for his powers than the clerical position
in a candy shop or as a soda water dispenser,
which may happen to be the first opening he
The home and the school must cooperate in
helping the boy become adjusted to his new
unfolding environment. The power of self-
control and self -propulsion called "will*' is now
in process of formation. **The positive dislike
for book-study which comes at the age when
it is the tendency of the boy to doy and not to
study, coupled with the ineffectiveness of the
school to meet the natural demand of the boy,"
is the cause of the boy's hunting a job. This
is the reason why there are 16,000,000 boys
and girls in the elementary schools of America
and only 776,000 in the high schools.
"If moral education is to prepare for life,"
says Edward Howard Griggs, "it must train
both the desire for earnest work and the habit
of its performance. . . . Hard effort is the one
» Lord, "Vocation Direction," p. 10.
path to a self-control, positive, not negative,
that makes it possible for us to trust ourselves
and to utilize all our forces for the ends we
consider worth while."^
A boy needs help in the choice of a vocation
along these three lines: first, he should have a
clear understanding of himself, his aptitudes,
interests, ambitions, abilities, resomrces, and lim-
itations; second, he should have a knowledge
of the requirements and conditions of success,
the advantages and disadvantages, the compen-
sation, opportunities for advancement, social
standing, and peculiar demands of different lines
of work; third, he should be clearly taught the
spiritualization of work, the joy of service, to
make the best always the goal, not for self, but
for the good of humanity, to believe the mind of
the worker must be set eternally upon the attain-
ment of a high spiritual goal.
A boy is capable of being reasoned with, and
the observant parent or teacher will watch for
every opportunity to talk with him about the
prospect of a life work. It is the boy that finally
must make the decision and not his parents.
Parental personal ambitions for their boy must
often be sacrificed if the boy is to succeed. Forc-
ing a boy to take up a business or profession
4 Griggs, "Moral Education," p. 86.
if he has no inclination or aptitude for it, is sure
to end disastrously.
Close friendship and confidence will reveal
sooner or later, that which "in response to
inner nerve growths and new features of his
environment, will lead him to assert himself
most positively in the direction of some kind
of useful occupation." What he needs at this
time is encouragement and not criticism.
Put into the boy's hands to read, especially
when he reaches fifteen or sixteen years of age,
such books as "Choosing a Career," by Orison
Swett Harden, "What Shall Our Boys do for
a Living?" by Wingate, "Profitable Vocations
for Boys," by E. H. Weaver, or some sanely
written book which will stimulate as well as
direct his thinking. Benjamin Franklin in his
autobiography says of his father "that he there-
fore sometimes took me to walk with him, to
see the joiners, bricklayers, turners, braziers,
etc., at their work, that he must fix my inclina-
tion, and endeavor to fix it on some trade or
other on land."
Freedom is needed as well as flexibility in
helping a boy decide his life work. If the boy
enjoys working with the soil and outdoors,
better than any other kind of work and has
a desire to be a farmer, let him be one, only im-
press upon him the advantage of being a good
fanner, and not a mere drudge; show him that
being a graduate of an agricultural college will
enable him to work the land much more intel-
ligently and successfully. With this natural
tendency to the soil, endeavor to arouse within
him a desire for increased education, so that
he may become a master of the soil instead of
A boy who has an inclination toward business
should be told of the need of uprightness and
sterling character in business life, how an educa-
tion is essential to success, how psychology, soci-
ology, scientific salesmanship, and economics all
enter into business efficiency, how personal effi-
ciency largely determines business efficiency. If he
is a student and loves study, show him the differ-
ence between memorized learning and thinking
out a subject, how a good sound body must
accompany a well-developed intellect, how
knowledge combined with health gives power
and wealth. The boy who has a decided prefer-
ence for some profession, should be helped to
understand the status of that profession, its
advantages as well as disadvantages; tell him
the bad as well as the good, how an education
is absolutely necessary if he is to become some-
thing more than a mere member of the profession.
The boy's ability and desire for building, the
instinct of workmanship or love of machinery
may cause him to look favorably upon the trades
as a life work. If so, point out to him the differ-
ence between a mere worker and one who
understands the scientific asp>ects, such as the
application of physics, chemistry, etc., to the
trades and industries. By this reasoning process
direct his decision and conclusion rather than
force him to become what you want him to be.
Help him to see the value of education, and
that no matter what may be his future voca-
tion, with an education his earning capacity
will be more than doubled and his chances for
In a study of former pupils of the Pittsburgh
schools made by Mr. Burroughs, he gives the
Those leaving school below the eighth grade, average
age 14 years 6 months, started to work at a weekly wage
averaging $4.96; at the end of four years were earning
$10.79, and after eight years $13.25.
Those graduating from the eighth grade but not going
to high school started to work at $5.96 a week; four years
later were making $13.86, and after eight years $16.23.
Their ages averaged 15 years and 4 months when they
started to work.
High school graduates, average age 18 years and 3
months, started at an average pay of $10.73 weekly; after
four years it went up to $17.77, and after eight years to
Give these facts to the boy, and help him see
the force of such a statement. A great weak-
ness in youth is the spirit of discontent, or the
habit of moving aimlessly from one thing to
another, the unwillingness to take time to ,work
out a life plan, or to stick to a given task until
something is accomplished. The wise parent or
teacher will endeavor to get the boys to see the
value of "this one thing I do" instead of "these
many things I dabble in" as being the only way
to develop concentration. Perhaps this dabbling
may be due to adult insistence upon a boy's do-
ing something for which he has no inclination
and intuitively knows he is not adapted, and
therefore he starts out on a term of experimenta-
tion hoping to find the one thing of absorbing
interest to demand his life, or he may be the
victim of a system of education which insists
upon the boy being fitted to the school rather
than fitting the school to the boy. The attempt
to develop concentration or will-power through
arbitrary requirements has proven not only a
failure, but is largely responsible for dishonesty
in studies and truancy. Interest and aptitude
are the prime factors in the development of
concentration. Marietta L. Johnson, who is work-
ing out a most interesting experiment in educa-
tion in her school at Fairhope, Ala., holds that
an institution has no right to ask, "What do
you know?" "Where are your credentials?"
It should require instead, "What do you need?'*
"How may we serve you?" The "standards'*
of an institution are thus measured by its ser-
vices, not by its requirements.
"Mrs. Johnson's standards are a healthy body, an alert
and active mind, and a sweet spirit. . . . For the health
of the body there is an out-of-door activity adapted to
the development and the strength and the needs of the
child. For the mind there are the acquaintance with
nature at first hand, the solving of problems in the making
of things, the controlling of forces and of materials, the
mastery of quantity in the measuring and weighing and
calculating, the learning of stories from history and from
literature, with their instinctive dramatization. There
is constant translation of words into thoughts and actions.
Finally the health of the spirit is ministered to by the
provision of 'sincere experiences' in relation to other
children and in relation to the forces and materials of
nature and industry. There is joy in the work because
the work has meaning. Mrs. Johnson sees very clearly
that half-hearted work is insincere."*
Netta M. Breckenridge interprets this desire
for freedom in education in her poem, "The
"I am a child — oh, do not tie me up
To schools, and desks, and books misunderstood.
When I am yearning to run out a-field.
To search the quiet of the dim, sweet wood.
"And — oh — sweet Mother — do not set me sums.
And those stiff, staring copies of some word.
Let me count meadows full of clover blooms.
And learn the sweet, free singing of a bird.
» The Scientific American Supplement, Nov. 14, 1914.
"For I have found a Teacher to my mind.
She whispers sweet instruction when at rest
I stretch brown arms — bare feet in cool, deep grass
That feels the heart throb 'neath her great warm breast.
"Then when the trees, the flowers, the sky, the birds.
Have taught their true, strong lessons, I'll come in
With eager, hungry questioning, and say,
'The books — sweet Mother — quick, I must begin!' "
"Spontaneity is absolutely necessary to orig-
inality," says Dr. Harden. "The enterprising
side of his nature, the enthusiastic, natural side,
is absolutely crushed in many a youth before
he reaches his majority.'***
Naturalness and self-expression should be en-
couraged instead of being repressed. If a boy
does not show interest or enthusiasm in his
studies there is something wrong, for these char-
acteristics are as natural to a boy as play is to
a young dog or song to a bird. It is a very
easy thing to crush ambition and interest and
enthusiasm in a boy. This may be done through
a lack of sympathy, through indifference, or
through neglect. He is hungry for encourage-
ment, for direction, and for leadership. It is
the duty of the parent and the teacher to en-
deavor to understand the boy, his natural ex-
pression and his bent, and then let him know
your interest and willingness to help achieve
his heart's desire and purpose.
• Marden, "Chooeing a Career," p. 4.
Statistics show that about five out of every
100 boys go from the public schools to college,
yet we compel the other 95 who do not or camiot
go, to prepare for college just the same. This
blundering process has caused many misfits in
life. Cities are beginning to feel the drain of
the unemployed, many of whom are the products
of this inefficient system of education.
Recently some of the thoughtful citizens of
Memphis made a careful study of their school
system and discovered that Memphis invited
every youth in the city to become a teacher or
lawyer, a doctor or minister, but she encouraged
none to prepare in school for efficient service in
her hundreds of factories and thousands of
offices. They became convinced that Memphis
needed more skilled workers in her shops, fac-
tories, and homes instead of university grad-
uates, some of whom were prepared for nothing
more than holding down an engineering job
tending a peanut roaster. They respected the
peanut vender who sells honest measures at
fair prices, provided he was unprepared to
render more useful service to the community;
they also agreed that a man who received from
twelve to sixteen years of schooling at public
expense should make a greater return to society
than is possible as a street vender.
When a boy leaves school, the world wants
to know what he can do, how well he can do
it, and how soon he can get it done. This means
that the school must adapt its course of study
to the needs of the boy, as well as to changing
conditions. By their overcrowded enrolment,
manual training schools, technical schools, and
schools of applied art reveal the appreciation
of the home and the boy. In these schools a
boy sees a chance for self-expression, or at least
an opportunity for a "try-out." The public
schools of tomorrow will incorporate many of
the ideas being tried out today by private schools
such as the Interlaken School at Rolling Prairie,
Indiana, and by courageous municipalities, as at
Gary, Indiana. The future method of impart-
ing instruction will be through vizualization; it
wiU be more human and natural and less book-
ish and artificial; it will be individual instead
of class work; it will be made so interesting that
boys will look upon education as something to
be desired and school a place of delight instead
of something to run away from; it will teach
boys how to live.
"Educational experts contend that our schools
should be made still more efficient in preparing
the youth of the community for citizenship, and
many are reaching the conclusion that this may
be done by devoting more time to subjects
which prepare students for entering upon some
remunerative pursuit," says John W. Curtis, in
a recent article on vocational education.^ "It
is certainly desirable that our future citizens be
better workers, and that future workers be
better citizens.'* All are agreed that every boy
should become a useful worker and a reliable
citizen and many believe that manual training
is aiding materially in securing this result. It
has afforded a means of stimulating the dormant
creative instinct with which most boys are en-
dowed and has aided in developing it into cre-
ative genius, which may be defined as the ca-
pacity for hard work or, as Edison says, is com-
posed of "2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent
perspiration." This may mean less Latin and
more civics, less of the non-essential and more
of the essential, fewer elective and more selective
In this demand for a newer type of vocational
education there is the danger of neglecting the
cultural side of education. Dr. David Snedden
in his book, "Problems of Educational Readjust-
ment," divides education into two parts, namely,
vocational and liberal, and defines them briefly
as follows: '^Vocational education is designed
to make of a person an efficient producer; Ub-
eral education may be designed to make a person
an efficient consumer or user." The great task
7 Ctirtis, Manual Training Magazine, Dec, 1913, p. 89.
of the school authorities is so to harmonize the
vocationalizing and liberalizing materials that all
will work together in developing the strongest
possible type of individual and the best kind of
a citizen. "We are learning that work and in-
dustry are not inconsistent with culture," writes
William A. McKeever, "but that they are a
necessary part of it; cultured artisans as well
as cultured artists constitute a part of this
new age of progress."
Motives are incentives to the will. Love of
activity, love of power, love of fame, are mo-
tives which may be appealed to in shaping a
boy's future motives vocationally. Make clear
to him the difference between a right and wrong
motive. Many methods are being used in dis-
covering the motives of a boy, such as the "Know
YourseK" campaigns and personal interviews
with men who have the ability of winning the
confidence of boys and to whom they will re-
veal their problems. Methods used in dealing
with large numbers of boys are always in danger
of becoming formal and automatic, and there-
fore ineffective. The method should always be
a means to an end, namely, the arousement
within a boy of that spirit which will lead him
into a larger life of usefulness, happiness, and
Hanging upon the walls of my library is a
framed photograph of Edwin Markham, and
underneath in his own handwriting this sentence:
"WTiile we are making a living let us not fail
to make a life." WTiatever the life call may be
to a boy, make sure that he understands the
imp>ortance of reverencing his work "to make
of it a way of life.'* Vocation then becomes
something more than a means of getting a liv-
ing. It is this spiritualization of work, the joy
of service that makes the livelihood of life worth
while. A boy cannot be impressed too early
in life with the glorification of work, whether
mental or muscular. "Seek ye therefore the
motive with its associating results and all the
rest shall be added unto you.'*
"Vocations are then 'higher* or 'lower' only
as they express more or less of the ideal and
consecration of the spirit, and any honest voca-
tion may express it all. Shoes into which a
man has sewn character are worth wearing;
they will keep the water out. A house into
which a man has built character is good to live
in; it wiQ be weather tight. Books into which
a man has written character are worth reading;
they will contain sound thought.**^ This was
the spirit of Moses whose prayer to God is re-
corded in the 90th Psalm, especially verses 16
and 17. "Let thy work appear unto thy ser-
8 Grigga, "Self Culture through the Vocation," p. 71.
vants and thy glory unto their children. And
let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us;
and establish thou the work of our hands upon
us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it."
To prevent greed and avarice and selfishness,
so much in evidence in the money making of to-
day, the bo^ must be taught from the very start
the joy of serving or doing some work for no
other pay than that of gratitude and love, ser-
vice to be given freely, out of the heart's de-
sire, gladly, without money and without price.
There is a saying in the Koran, that when a
man dies the people say, "What has he left
behind him.^" but the recording Angel says^
"What good deeds has he sent before him?"
"Let me but do my work from day to day.
In field or forest, at the desk or loom.
In roaring market-place or tranquil room
Let me but find it in my heart to say
When vagrant wishes beckon me astray,
'This is my work; my blessing, not my doom:
Of all who live, I am the one by whom
This work can best be done in my own way.*
"Then shall I see 'tis not too great, nor small:
To suit my spirit and to prove my powers;
Then shall I cheerful greet the laboring hours.
And cheerful turn, when the long shadows fall
At eventide, to play and love and rest
Because I know for me my work is best."
— Henry van Dyke,
Slow growth in height and
Brain growth slow.
Restlessness — energy.
Coordination of muscles — play
out of doors.
An energy storing period for
use of next period.
Memory at its best.
Imagination of practical turn.
Reasoning developing rapidly.
, Imitation of adults — with a
purpose to be like them.
Rapid growth of brain and
Peculiarly liable to disease.
Curiosity — the "why" "how"
Will begins to develop.
Imitation of adults strong.
Very rapid rate of growth.
Skin highly sensitive — learns
much by touch.
No coordination of powers.
Invests inanimate things with
Perception of concrete objects
Memory for concrete things.
Curiosity — the "what" stage.
No real thought power.
Open to suggestion.
Sympathy, love, affection.
Crude sense of humor.
Social impulses increasing.
Sense of right of property de-
Love of order increases.
Fears prominent and are im-
Anger, pride, jealousy.
Desire for company grows rap-
Disregard for dress.
Love of order.
Rebels against restraint of any
Fear — anxiety for right.
Sympathy begins at close to
Instinctive emotional feeling.
Many emotions imitative.
All emotions superficial.
Fears are imaginative.
Fear prompts desire for com-
Generosity sometimes found.
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Body normally under mental
Height is attained, but devel-
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Ripening of powers.
Vigor of will power manifest
Logical memory still broaden-
Reason predominates over all
Doubts strong — climax.
Great readjustment in thinking.
Mental powers very keen.
Body nearly grown.
Mind begins to have control
Bodily impulses growing
Logical memory growing
Reason leads to independent
Doubts strong — increase later.
Imitation on decline.
Greater activity in thinking.
Receptive powers quick.
Very rapid growth — bones
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Change of features.
Vitality and energy alternates
Health better in most cases.
Heredity asserts itself.
Verbal memory but logical.
Doubt growing stronger.
Imitation — becomes like ideal.
Great intellectual energy wants
Power of influence strong.
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GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND
Taking His Measure
**Flower in the crannied wall,
I pluck you out of the crannies,
I hold you here, root and all, in my hand,
Little flower — but if I could understand
"What you are, root and all, and all in all,
I should know what God and man is."
It is the unknowable which has always baffled
man. The most mysterious period in life is the
period of adolescence, or the growing time.
The chief business of a boy is to grow. Boy
stuff is the only stuff in the world from which
you can grow a man. If the actual process of
growing was as easy as the building of a house,
boys would be spared many a "growing pain;"
but, alas! the yawning, the stretching, the kick-
ing, the crawling, the climbing, the running,
and the resisting he must go through to attain
physical stature; then add to all this the mental
struggle and the pangs of social adjustment he
must undergo in the wonderful phenomena of
growing into a man, and you begin to appre-
ciate the seriousness of the process of growth,
which parents fail to understand and scientists
have not yet succeeded in making much easier.
Two skilled builders. Nature and Nurture, how-
ever, are on the job, one as the architect and
the other as the worker, a firm, which when in
harmony and not on a strike, usually succeeds
'*Man of soul and body, formed for deeds of high resolve."
What is a boy? George Allen Hubbell de-
scribes him as follows:
"In the language of chemistry, he is a shovelful of earth
and a bucketful of water.
"In the language of physics, he is a wonderful machine,
a combination of various bands, cords and levers, ad-
justed in due relation and operating for a specific purpose.
"In the language of physiology, he consists of a bony
framework covered with flesh and skin, and supplied
with various organs whose functions are to preserve the
life of the individual and to perpetuate the species.
"In the language of sociology, he is a unit in the organ-
ism of human society and has his specific functions in
the life of the social whole, just as the organs of the
body have specific functions in the life of the body.
"In the language of psychology, he is a mind man-
ifesting various phenomena, all of which occur in harmony
"In the language of theology, he is the dust of the
ground and the breath of God, a spark struck from the
divine anvil, a life enclosed in a clod of clay, a son of
the Most High, afar from his Father's house, but when
true to himself, seeking his eternal home.
TAKING HIS MEASURE 171
"In the language of education, he is a being constituted
of body and mind, a bundle of possibilities from which
the developments may be marvelous. He is born in
weakness, yet destined to strength; promising noble
things, yet often falling short of fulfillment. He is the
hope of the good and the great."*
According to the recent findings of a German
scientist, the intrinsic value of the constituent
elements of the body of a person weighing 150
pounds is $7.50. This value is represented in
the phosphorus, lime, iron, sulphur, and albumen
in a body. The fat is worth about $2.50; of the
iron there is hardly enough to make even a
small nail an inch long. There is enough lime
to whitewash a pretty good-sized chicken house.
The phosphorus would be sufficient to put heads
on about 2,200 matches and the magnesium enough
to make a splendid "silver rain*' for a firework
display. The average human body contains
enough albumen for one hundred eggs. There
is possibly a small teaspoonful of sugar and a
pinch of salt. The whole is worth commercially
One does not fancy the human body as an
electrical dynamo, but if the heat and muscular
energy expended by an average man of sedentary
habits were converted into electrical units, he
would find himself in possession of quite a val-
1 HubbeU, "Up Through ChUdhood," p. 121.
uable asset. It is proved that a man uses up about
two and one-half kilowatt hours of electrical
energy in a working day. Approximately one-
half of this amount is used up to keep the tem-
perature of the body constant, while the other
half is expended in muscular energy. This
amount of electricity may not seem great, but
when one considers the things that can be done
when it is efficiently apphed, the power of the
human body is more clearly seen. Two and one-
half kilowatt hours of electrical energy is sufficient
to maintain four 25-watt tungsten lamps of
twenty candlepower each for twenty-five hours;
or heat an electric flatiron for six hours; run a
sewing-machine motor for 100 hours; heat an
electric toaster for four hours; an electric heater
for two hours; an electric curling iron for 100
hours; run a large fan for thirty-two hours, or
warm a chafing dish for six hours. All this is
accomplished without voluntary effort, and merely
comes in the course of the day's work, and does
not represent the energy of a laboring man.
It is an astounding revelation of the efficiency
and endurance of the human machine.
Physicians have measured this complex and
ingenious human machine to a dot. A normal
boy, fifteen years or more old, has 200 bones
and 500 muscles; his blood weighs 25 pounds;
his heart is nearly five inches in length and three
TAKING HIS MEASURE 173
inches in diameter. It beats 70 times a minute,
4,200 times an hour, 100,800 times a day, and
36,792,000 times a year. At each beat a little
over two ounces of blood is thrown out of it;
each day it receives and discharges about seven
tons of that wonderful fluid. It is the most
remarkable pump in the world.
His limgs contain a gallon of air, and he in-
hales 24,000 gallons a day. The aggregate sur-
face of the air-cells of his lungs, supposing them
to be spread out, is 20,000 square inches. The
weight of his brain is three pounds or more.
His nerves exceed 10,000,000. His skin is com-
posed of three layers, and varies from one-eighth
to one-fourth of an inch in thickness. The area
of the skin is about 1,700 square inches and is
subjected to an atmospheric pressure of 15
pounds to the square inch, a total of 12.7 tons.
Each square inch of his skin contains 3,500
sweating tubes, or perspiratory pores, each of
which may be likened to a little drain tile one-
fourth of an inch long, making an aggregate
length in the entire surface of his body of 201,160
feet, or a tile ditch for draining the body almost
40 miles long. Truly he is "fearfully and won-
There is a clever invention known as the
"phrenometer" operated by electricity which
scientifically (?) measures, delineates, prints, and
delivers on a sheet of paper the degree of develop-
ment of every faculty of the brain.
Taking his measure in a more popular way,
some one has depicted a boy as "a complex piece
of machinery consisting of
"I. One large boiler, conmionly called the
brain, capable of standing a very high pressure.
"II. One special sized furnace, with a capacity
of several tons, sometimes spoken of as the
"III. Two powerful headlights right in front of
the boiler which will not let anything come in
their path unnoticed.
"IV. Five exhaust valves, namely, two arms,
two legs and one mouth.
"The whole engine is put together in such a
way as to prove the most powerful machine
that the world has ever had."
Thus physicians have measured him, psychol-
ogists have charted him, scientists have analyzed
him, volumes have been written about him,
libraries are filled with sound advice to him,
conferences innmnerable have discussed him, but
he still remains a complex problem and as yet
No matter how others size him up, to his
parents he is just a lovable, contrary, fun-loving,
patience-provoking youngster who is always
wanting something ranging from "eats" to sym-
TAKING HIS MEASURE 175
pathy, whose clothes are usually wearing out
or becoming too small and whose bringing up
is the greatest responsibility in the world.
To help the boy grow "in wisdom and stature,
and in favor with God and man," is the supreme
function of every parent and boys' worker,
and the person who faithfully and sympathetically
guides the growing boy in right paths, who meas-
ures up to the boy's ideal of a friend, whose
life speaks louder than his words, is performing
a greater service for humanity than in the erec-
tion of a "sky scraper" or the digging of a canal.
These things perish with time, but a boy is a
soul representing eternity.
To the psychologist must be granted the honor
of arriving nearest to the solution of the boy
problem. His patient study and painstaking
research work have given to parents and teachers
a new understanding of the boy: a knowledge of
the powers of the mind, the emotions and im-
pulses, the ambitions, and the cause and effect
in the development of character. To his scien-
tific knowledge has been added the experience
of workers — a happy blending of theory and
practice, which means a square deal in the fu-
ture for misunderstood boys.
In the endeavor to understand or "measure"
the boy this fact should always be kept in mind,
that he is also "taking your measure." His
great ambition is to grow into manhood, and
his conception of manhood he gets from observ-
ing "grown ups." As he emerges from one stage
of growth into another, he becomes more con-
scious of himself and of increasing powers within
him, he begins to draw comparisons, to discrim-
inate, to form his own conclusions. This is
his divine right, but woe to that individual who
has set before the boy wrong standards of life,
who becomes a stumbling block. "It were
better for him that a millstone were hanged
about his neck, and that he were drowned in
the depth of the sea," for memory will always
mirror unfaithful leadership and guidance.
The thing which makes the body worth more
than $7.50 and has caused laborious and pains-
taking research, is that mysterious something
called "life," or the "soul." The visible mani-
festation of soul-life is character, for the process
of growth involves the development of character.
"As a man thinketli, so are his head and face;
and as in our younger years we tend in this
direction and that, so the brain will develop,
and the bony structure will conform to the needs
of the growth within."*
Certain standards are held before a growing
boy to which he is expected to measure up.
Sometimes these standards are so insistently
2 Fosbroke, "Character Reading," p. 2.
TAKING HIS MEASURE 177
forced upon him that inward rebellion soon be-
comes outward rebellion. A "model*' boy is
looked upon with disgust by a red-blooded,
mischievous boy. Nothing so completely mad-
dens a boy as the holding up before him one of
these "model" boys. In that delightful story
of boyhood, "Penrod," by Booth Tarkington,
when Penrod is being initiated into the mystic
maze of the dance by Professor Bartel, he seems
to have considerable difficulty in acquiring the
rhythmics of the waltz, and after his many awk-
ward attempts to glide in the right direction the
Professor calls out before the class George Bas-
sett, who is the "Best Boy in the Town,** to
demonstrate how it should be done properly.
Now Penrod had a clear title of being the Worst
Boy in the Town (Population 135,000). "Teach-
er's pet," whispered Penrod hoarsely to Georgia
as he passed by, after demonstrating the proper
way. He had nothing but contempt for Georgie,
and of course something happened later to the
"model boy." A boy needs ideals, not models.
Mothers make many errors of this sort. Fathers,
having gone through the experience of boyhood,
know better, unless time has shortened memory.
The critical moment in a boy's life is the time
when he doffs the knee pants and puts on long
trousers. Mother wants to keep him a little
boy as long as possible, while he wants to be
big, and many battles royal have been fought over
what he considers to be an inalienable right.
There are two epochs in a boy's life which tug
hard at the mother's heart-strings; one is when
he has gotten too old to wear the curls or long
"dutch" locks, and he "wants them cut off so
he can go with bigger fellows," and the other
when he reaches the long trouser period. The
second epoch means even more than the first,
both to mother and boy. Mother realizes that
her "little boy" is a little boy no longer. It
is hard for her to understand that nothing in
God's Kingdom has ever stood still. To him
it is reaching the "grown up" goal, an event of
great moment, eagerly and longingly anticipated.
Some time ago a boy in one of our eastern
cities, having reached what he believed to be
the long trouser period, naturally broached the
matter to his parents, but alas, his parents said
nay, so he appealed to his class mates in the
high school. Though of small stature, he was
a member of the senior class, and it was hu-
miliating for him to wear the knee pants. His
class mates in coimcil drew up the following
and sent it to his parents:
Whereas, Samuel Smith having reached the years of
discretion, being a senior in the High School, desires now
to further demonstrate his dignity by performing that
feat known as wearing long trousers, and
TAKING HIS MEASURE 179
Whereas, his parental relative has taken a determined
opposition to this proposed change of costume, therefore
Resolved, that in the unanimous opinion of the pupils
of the Blank High School, said Samuel Smith has demon-
strated his ability to wear above mentioned type of trousers
and has been campaigning along that line all summer.
We, the undersigned, therefore petition that recog-
nition of the above resolution be given by stern parent
in granting the necessary permission and desired type
It is needless to add that the long trousers
came and the goal was reached.
Some one has called this long trouser period
the "pin feather age." How significant is the
first shave! Well do I remember my first shave!
The peculiar sensation of having cool, creamy
lather artistically spread over my downy jaw
and upper lip, the electrical feeling as the steel
blade carefully gathered up the fuzz with the
cool lather, the application of hot towels, the
penetrating aroma of Bay Rum and the fragrance
of the "powder," was a never-to-be-forgotten
experience. Another notch had been reached
in the measuring rod of manhood.
Parents need have no fear now about dirty
hands and face or uncombed hair; the problem
will be how to keep the boy away from the
mirror, for you are almost sure to find a small
one nestling with a comb in his vest pocket.
How important becomes the crease in the trouser.
and the "turn up" at the bottom, the shade of
his tie, and the shape of his hat! He is now re-
lieved from the tyranny of having mother buy
his clothes, as T. A. Daly so vividly describes
it in the following verses:
"Mom always makes me mad clean through
The way she buys my clothin';
She always picks out things fur you
That fills yer soul with loathin.'
It's happened time an' time again
When I want something sporty,
She sets her mind on somethin' plain,
'Real cheap at seven-forty.'
I try a suit that fits me right —
A fit there ain't no doubt of —
An' blamed if she don't say: 'Too tight!
Too easy to grow out of.'
She sez I'm just a 'little brute'
An' 'drive her to distraction,*
But she ain't never bought a suit
That's gave me satisfaction.
"I may be bad, but, Jimminee!
I ain't a goin' to bear it.
I guess I know the suit fur me.
Since I'm the one to wear it.
I kicked so hard to-day, O my!
You bet I jist raised thunder.
An' she went home an' told Pop I
Wuz 'gitten quite beyond her.'
Then Pop he sez a word, sez he.
That filled my soul with laughter;
He sez he's goin' along o' me
To buy my clo'es hereafter!"
TAKING HIS MEASURE 181
He has now reached the point of "exit Mother"
and "enter Father," when the comradeship of
father becomes the real means of his measuring
up to manhood's standards. Now is the time
for father to talk to him intimately of the
things men must meet in the busy world, the
temptations, the struggles, the victories of the
stronger sex. One father in telling of his talk
with his boy said, "We discussed honor in all
its phases — ^honor in finance, honor in the family
relations, and honor in love. We dwelt on the
fact that money may be used to measure a
man, we were emphatic about the necessity of
being exact in the smallest business matters,
including those that concern the home. . . . On
the last night of our vacation we sat before a
wood fire and talked of life as the Great Oppor-
tunity. Looking into the flame we saw visions
of years in which it was possible to accomplish
something which would justify our existences.
My boy smiled in the calm, contented way
which assured me that he had lofty dreams,
and would be ready for the hand-to-hand en-
counter with the world. "^
**How beautiful is youth! how bright it gleams
With its illusions, aspirations, dreams!
Book of Beginnings, Story without End.
Each maid a heroine and each man a friend."
» Carl Werner in The Outlook, Oct. 18, 1913.
A boy is capable of measuring up to great
resp)onsibilities. This nation of ours was saved
by boys, just as the great war across the seas
is now being fought by boys. According to
the statistics of the United States Government,
of the 2,500,000 soldiers enlisted in the Civil
War, including 600,000 reenlistments,
1,159,789 were under 21 years of age
Well governed cities
efficient schools, happy
homes, and vitalized churches of the future de-
pend upon the boys of today. Preparation for
these greater responsibilities of the later teens
and early manhood is made by the sharing of
smaller resx>onsibilities during boyhood, in the
home, in the Sunday school, in the public school,
in the camp, in the Association, on the play-
ground. When the appeal of the larger loyalty
and responsibility comes, he will measure up to
the best that is in him.
"Every boy who comes to maturity," says T.
A. Craig, 'Tias cost the state — that is you and me
TAKING HIS MEASURE 183
— one thousand dollars. Some boys go wrong.
When a boy goes wrong, we not only lose our
thousand dollars, but we have to spend another
thousand to protect ourselves against him."
Responsibihty inspires a boy to measure up to
his best and naturally prevents wrong doing.
Standards of right doing are established also by
a knowledge of evil, just as the value of fresh
air is taught by being told something of the
evil of the lack of it. Ignorance of the dark
and seamy side of life is not always a help to
boys who are on the edge of a world in which
good and evil are mixed. If boys are to be
equipped with permanent standards of productive-
ness and to measure up to their potentialities,
they must be given hard things to do, they
must be saved from the sin of selfishness through
service for others, and the parent or friend who
can guide them into paths of right doing will
ever be remembered. Memory never forgets the
friends of boyhood. "I had a friend*' is the
secret of the manly, virile character of many
"Earth's future glory and its hopes and joys
Lie in the hearts and hands of growing boys.
The world is theirs, to do with as they will;
The world is theirs, for the good results or ill.
We soon must give into their outstretched hands
The mighty issues of our changing lands.
In Earth's large house they soon shall take their place,
A menace or a glory to the race.
Tremendous issues on Time's threshold wait;
We need strong men to guide the Ship of State
Into the harbor of the next decade.
Look to the boys from whom strong men are made."
The Language of the Fence
"There was a child went forth every day and the first
object he looked upon, that object he became, and that
object became part of him for the day or a certain part
of the day, or for many years or stretching cycles of
years." — Whitman.
The language of the fence speaks more effec-
tively in the molding of sentiment and morals
among boys than does the eloquence of the
pulpit. A piece of chalk in the hands of an
evil-minded boy will cause the fence, side wall
of a house, and even the pavement to blossom
forth in pictures and language which the law
forbids tongue to utter or artist to paint. This
language is but the reflection of the thought life
of the boy. As the boy grows older these thoughts
become actions and society receives a shock.
Frequently a school house may be located by
the language chalked on nearby fences, and
walks. It is appalling how thoroughly even
immature boys and girls understand this lan-
guage. It is a language not printed in books
but passed on from community to community
in about the same way as marble playing, and
the games of youth. The only difference in
each community is the degree of vileness. Coun-
try villages frequently exhibit more shocking
drawings and sentences of filthy verse than the
congested sections of the city. A traveler from
Maine to California will not find a community
where "the language of the fence" cannot be
seen and read.
The preponderance of its influence is evidenced
by the records of the Juvenile Courts. The
crimes of manhood begin during the habit-making
period of youth. A mental photograph of the
fence language was made through the lens of
the eye, thought was stimulated, and action
determined. Through a succession of uncon-
trolled thoughts, habits were strengthened and
hardened, until the mature criminal was pro-
duced. Why are parents so blind and com-
munities so self-centered upon material progress
and success that they cannot read the language
of the fence, or see its effect upon these citizens
of tomorrow? Why are boys and girls per-
mitted to be taught by others the vile names
given to parts of their body before first learning
their real names from their Grod appointed
teachers — ^Mother and Father.?
With a view to verifying these statements I
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 187
interviewed 288 boys, all of whom were fifteen
years of age and over and who represented good
homes — ^homes of culture and education — in about
forty different cities and towns. The answers
to my first question, "How old were you when
you were first told by anyone about sex mat-
ters?" is shown in the following tabulation
Age 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
boys 2 10 5 1 25 13 40 26 56 29 37 21 7 2 2
My second question, "From whom did you
first receive such information?" revealed the fol-
From Mother 75
" Father 9
" Other adults 45
" boys 144
" Girls 15
My third question, "What was the character
of the information, pure or impure?" brought
out the fact that whenever the parent was the
first teacher in the boy's school of life, the in-
formation was naturally pure, but when the
"other boy" was the instructor the information
was of the vilest sort. It was only after twelve
years of age, when older boys of the right sort
A6E,4 5 e 7 6 9_I0JI 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
The age when boys received first information
on matters op sex
288 boys replied to the questionnaire
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 189
became Big Brothers, and saw the need of cor-
rectional advice that the information given by
boys was pure. The adults and parents came
into the boy*s life too late. His mind was al-
ready poisoned and his habits formed. One
boy said, "When I was hardly out of the kinder-
garten all kinds of impure jokes and information
began to pour into my ears from the mouths of
other boys. My father, when he found out my
condition, informed me in a very direct and
emphatic, though kindly way about the true
facts and taught me to abhor rigidly even the
slightest suggestion of impurity, but he came
into my life too late." The schoolyard was the
place where a ten-year-old boy found out the
wrong side of life. A farm hand was the in-
structor in evil for an eleven-year-old boy. An-
other boy said, "My honest opinion is that the
parents of today do not give the necessary
information to their boys about such a vital
matter. I know of many fellows who have
fallen into immoral habits because their parents
have not told them."
The Young Men's Christian Association in
one of our American cities, desiring to be of
service to the parent as well as the boy, in the
matter of sex instruction, sent the following
letter to one thousand parents inclosing ad-
dressed reply envelope:
To the Fathers of our Boys.
Subject ! — Sex Education.
Dear Sir: The Educational Committee of the
Boys' Division is desirous of obtaining the opinions
of the parents on the subject of Sex Education.
The CoHMnittee realizes that many parents are
reluctant about giving their boys instruction in
this subject and it is anxious to help them over-
come this reluctance if possible.
If the replies received on cards similar to the
one inclosed, indicate that the parents are will-
ing to give this instruction, the Committee may
arrange to give a course of talks or readings to
assist the parents. If, however, the returns
indicate that the parents prefer to have their
boys instructed by those who are thoroughly
famiUar with every phase of the subject, the
Committee will plan a course of talks and read-
ings for the boys, dividing them into groups
according to their physical development.
It is the Committee's intention that all instruc-
tion shall be based upon the sacredness of God's
laws as exemplified in nature through reproduc-
tion in plant, bird, fish, and animal life. Wher-
ever the boy, through right thought, is led to
make analogies in human life, his questions will
be truthfully answered. All morbid details will
be avoided in answering these questions and the
boy's curiosity will be thoroughly satisfied.
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 191
We hope you will be prompt in filling in the
inclosed card and in mailing same in the addressed
The Educational Committee
A card was also inclosed upon which was
printed the following:
Please answer the following questions by
marking an (X) in either column under Yes
1. Do you prefer to give all the Sex In-
struction to your boy yourself?
2. Are you willing to have your boy given
Sex Instruction in accordance with
the intentions of the Committee?
3. Would you be willing to meet with
other parents to discuss this subject?
4. Do you feel that your boy knows all
he ought to know about the subject?
After a lapse of one week 105 replies were
received or about 10 per cent of the number of
The replies were as follows:
To question No. 1 "yes" 7 "No" 90 8 made no reply
" 2 " 99 " 6
* 3 " 60 " 21 24 made no reply
«( <« tf ^ t( ^ « Q^ J t< « «
The replies received tell the same sad story
of parental willingness to shift responsibility
uix)n other shoulders for the instruction of their
boys in matters of sex. The replies to No. 3
reveal an attitude of indifference that is stag-
gering, as well as appalling.
In talking with parents upon this subject they
exhibit an attitude of fear lest their boy be not
old enough to understand. It is better for
parents to tell the facts to their boy two years
too early than ten minutes too late, for if the
wrong boy comes into the boy's life ten minutes
before father or mother becomes his confidential
adviser it is too late. Already the author of the
"language of the fence'* has poisoned his mind.
The fact that one hundred and forty-four boys
received their first information in sex matters
from other boys instead of their parents is a
serious indictment against parenthood. **0h,
why didn't my parents tell me!" is the pitiful
wail of the habit-boimd boy. "Ah, how for-
tunate for me!" is the satanic reply of the quack
who harvests a rich crop of unfortunate students
of this fence language. Who is the real sinner,
the boy or his parent.'
"The City Beautiful" agitation has aroused
civic conscience to such an extent that even if
the bill board has not been done away with, it
is at least better censored. In many cities or-
dinances forbid the posting of vulgar show bills
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 193
or scenes depicting murder, but the "language
of the fence," in the terms of advertising, is not
yet as clean or as honest as it should be. False
statements concerning food products and liquids
are attractively presented on bill boards which
the boy reads on his way to school or work. In
many cities the bill board is still the corrupter
of morals. Thrilling lithographs in front of
moving-picture shows excite scores of boys to
criminal acts. These are but other forms of
"the language of the fence," greatly influencing
the morals of every boy who stands and reads.
Many sermons and heart-to-heart talks will be
required before the boy will forget the language
lesson of the fence.
How can we abolish this school of "fence
language.'^" The destruction of chalk or the
voting of bill-board ordinances "won't do the
trick." It can only be done through the boy
himself. A movement for clean speech, clean
sport, and clean living has been quietly influencing
thousands of boys in our public schools. Just
as boys are responsible for the existence of the
language of the fence, so must they be made
responsible for its abolishment. Already in
many towns the "fence" has received a thorough
scrubbing through a very simple process. A
boy leader in the school gets another boy to
stand with him on the following platform:
I resolve to stand for clean speech, clean sport, and
clean living, and will endeavor to spread these principles
among my companions, and try to help my fellow students
in every other possible way.
Wherever a group of determined boys have
stood together upon this platform, the entire
school has felt its influence, and where teachers,
school directors, and city authorities have failed,
the boys have succeeded in accomphshing a
The Japanese very cleverly teach three im-
portant truths to their boys through the use
of three monkeys known as "The Three Wise
Monkeys.'* One monkey has covered his eyes
with his hands and is called "See no evil," the
second monkey is holding his hands over his
ears and is called "Hear no evil," the third has
his hands placed over his mouth and is called
"Speak no evil." In this unique manner boys
are taught the seriousness of mental photography
and brain impressions through the lenses of the
eye, and the recording power of the ear, as well
as the lesson of controlled speech.
What a wonderful thing is the eye! According
to the findings of Prof. Tyndall, light analyzed
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 195
is compounded of the colors of the rainbow; the
length of the longest light wave, the red, is thirty-
nine one-thousandth of an inch. Light travels
at the rate of 192,000 miles a second. Multiply
the length of the wave of red hght by the rate
of miles traveled by light in a second and you
have 474 trillions of red waves that strike the
eye every second. This wonderful as well as
powerful lens is making brain impressions that
eternity alone can erase. A very young child will
follow a moving light with his eye, thus showing
the early (perhaps the instinctive) tendency to
connect sight proper and the muscular sensation.
Pictures have always had an appeal. The
child mind is able to understand pictures long
before words. The words he hears are instinc-
tively formed into internal pictures. "Let the
eye have something to rest upon and his mental
powers are relieved from the task of internal
picture making."^ Here is the pedagogical value
of the "Three Wise Monkeys."
Boys have a great interest in pictures of
human beings. Ninety-nine per cent of the
drawings of very young children are of people,
crude in detail, just a few strokes of the pencil.
Adolescents pay much attention to details. This
is evidenced in the drawings made by boys and
girls of the high-school age seen in popular mag-
1 Freeman, "The Use of lUustration," p. 16.
azines and in the "Young People's Column" of
metropolitan newspapers. Style is depicted in
minutest detail, such as the latest collar, cut of
coat or dress, combing of hair, etc. Imagination
plays an important part in these iUustrations.
"Adolescence is the golden age for picture-study."
In these days of idealism it is Dr. G. Stanley
Hall's opinion that "Art should not now be for
art's sake, but for the sake of feeling and char-
acter, life and conduct,"^ "such an opportunity
for infecting the soul with vaccine of ideality,
hope, optimism, and courage in adversity, will
never come again. Art is the chief regulator
of the heart, out of which are the issues of life."
Those who would destroy boyhood know how
to use pictures. A picture reaches to a boy's
depths; and what he sees is very apt to repro-
duce itself in an action. It is dm-ing the develop-
ment of the sex instincts that the language of
the obscene picture speaks in siren-like tones.
The currents of new impulses may sweep him
off his feet with wrong doing.
Sane instruction in matters of sex cannot be-
gin too soon. The questions of the child are
the mother's opportunity. What to say, and
how to say it, is the concern of both mother
and father. "Secrecy," says Dr. Chadwick, "witJb
its companion, prurient curiosity, is the cause
2 Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. I, p. 186.
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 197
of much unrest and sin in later life." "As a
man thinketh in his heart so is he" is particularly
true of sex life, inasmuch as the sex organism is
so peculiarly under the influence of the sym-
pathetic nervous system, that system which re-
sponds so strongly to thought and emotion.
"Where did I come from?" is a racial question
every boy repeats in various stages of his de-
velopment. Too long the stork myth and
the policy of repressing this vital question
has prevailed, and in the boy's growing desire
for a definite, honest answer, much misinforma-
tion is gotten from those who are not squeamish,
which is the cause of unnecessary sorrow and
perpetual pain to the seeker after truth. Parental
hypocrisy in sex matters has caused much wreck-
age of boy life. The boy has the right to know
the truth, for verily the truth shall make him
free. The first teacher in the boy's school of life
must be his mother.
"Where have I come from, where did you pick me up?'*
the baby asked its mother.
She answered half crying, half laughing, and clasping
the baby to her breast —
"You were hidden in my heart as its desire, my darling.
"You were in the dolls of my childhood's games; and
when with clay I made the image of my god every morn-
ing, I made and unmade you then.
"You were enshrined with our household deity, in his
worship I worshiped you.
"In all my hopes and my loves, in my life, in the life
of my mother you have lived.
"In the lap of the deathless Spirit who rules our home
you have been nursed for ages.
"When in girlhood my heart was opening its petals,
you hovered as a fragrance about it.
"Your tender softness bloomed in my youthful limbs,
like a glow in the sky before the sunrise.
"Heaven's first darling, twin-born with the morning
light, you have floated down the stream of the world's
life, and at last you have stranded on my heart.
"As I gaze on your face, mystery overwhelms me; you
who belong to all have become mine.
"For fear of losing you I hold you tight to my breast.
What magic has snared the world's treasure in these
slender arms of mine?"
— The Crescent Moon
by Rabindbanath Tagobe.
It is a mother's privilege to translate the
poetic into the scientific fact. Much publicity
and discussion upon this question has produced
a literature of available books written in terms
readily understood. One of the best books to
read to very young children is "Blossom Babies,"
by M. Louise Chadwick, M.D. Through the
story of reproduction in flowers, insects, and
animal life, the way of approach to later in-
formation is made easier and as puberty ap-
proaches the boy is ready to receive the biological
It is most unwise to put books which deal
with sex life into the hands of a growing boy.
Much of the value of such books is destroyed
by "Prefaces," "Forewords to Parents," "Bibli-
ographies," and advertisements of other books.
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 199
Nine times out of ten, the boy reads this informa-
tion before he reads the book itself. A careful
study of scores of books and hundreds of
pamphlets revealed the truth of this statement,
and a book for boys, free from everything except
the message itself, is yet to be produced. It
is much better to read the book yourself and
then by word of mouth tell the truth and the facts
in your own language, face to face, and eye to
When the story has been told, don't repeat
it. Repetition makes the boy blase and hardened
and sophisticated. I hope the time will never
come when sex instruction will be incorporated
in the curriculum of the public school. Sex
instruction, if placed in the same curriculum
with Latin, Algebra, and other school studies,
will lose its effectiveness. Knowledge alone is
not enough. Responsibility must be stirred and
noble emotions must be aroused. The routine
of the school system does not lend itself to this
sympathetic, vital, and spiritualizing type of
instruction. The home is the God appointed
school for sex instruction. God, who holds
the parent responsible for bringing the boy into
the world, will hold that parent equally respon-
sible for the boy's instruction as to how he came
into the world. Parents who feel their inability
to impart this important knowledge should learn
how; it is a part of their business of being a
parent. Mothers' Congresses, parent-teachers'
associations, women's clubs and medical socie-
ties are providing the way for parental instruction.
It is too sacred a matter for parents to shift to
the shoulders of another person or an institu-
Mother love must be explained to a boy by
his father or his god-father. Tell him how for
months he was a part of mother, how every morsel
of food she ate helped to feed him, how in every
step she took great care was exercised, how every
book and picture was read and looked upon with
relation to his well-being, for she was anxious
that he come into the world without a spot or
blemish. Tell him how there came a time when
he was to be delivered, how mother's hfe hung
in the balance, and how joy followed the pain of
deUvery, as she looked upon his face for the first
time and heard the cry that escaped from his hps,
and there came into her heart and life a love that
only mothers experience, a love that never leaves
nor forsakes, a love that never lets go, a love that
leads her to speak to her son in the following
language of motherhood:
"Do you know that your soul is of my soul such part
That you seem to be fibre and core of my heart?
None other can pain me as you, dear, can do;
None other can please me or praise me as you.
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 201
•'Remember the world will be quick with its blame
If shadow or stain ever darken your name.
'Like mother, like son,' is a saying so true.
The world will judge largely of mother by you.
"Be yours, then, the task, if task it shall be.
To force this proud world to do homage to me.
Be sure it will say, when its verdict you've won,
'She reaps as she sowed. Lo! this is her son.' "
Love of this sort awakens within the boy a
kind of chivalry or knightly devotion, which is
a sure anchor in the whirlpool of sex consciousness.
He should be taught to ignore the literature
of the quack and to refuse books upon the sub-
ject unless given to him by his parents. He
should be taught the danger of stimulation of
the sex hunger through certain forms of social
pleasure such as "animal dances,*' "high-keyed"
amusements and other types of harmful pleasure.
He should be taught to look forward to the time
when he will become a home maker, and shown
how purity of life determines future happiness.
A seventeen-year-old boy was traveling with
Prof. John B. DeMotte in Germany. When
they arrived at Heidelberg they climbed to the
top of the cliff to view the ruins of the old castle.
As they sat upon the castle wall, facing the
setting sun, the boy, who was unusually quiet
and thoughtful, turned to Prof. DeMotte and ex-
claimed, "Right over there, where the sun is
going down, is the girl I love, and I am keeping
pure for her sake."
Unless this kind of instruction is given, the
influence of the "fence language" will cause the
boy to "sow more wild oats in one night than
he can reap in a life time, and his children will
continue to reap the crop to the third and fourth
generation." The boy in his teens needs to
realize how his future is largely determined by
his present deeds, so that when the temptation
comes to "sow wild oats," he may hear the
plea of the future child, so vitally given by
Angela Morgan to the man of pleasure:
"At the terrible door of your beautiful sin
I am standing within;
Your portal of rapture is fated for me
In the harvest to be.
Do you hearken my cry?
It is I; it is I;
I who suffer and weep
For the revels you keep;
I who struggle and plead
For the body I need —
Strong, splendid, and whole
And fit for my soul!
I plead that my blood may be cleanly and red;
I plead that my tissues be cherished and fed.
Wherever you enter, or early or late,
There am I at the gate.
On the brink
THE LANGUAGE OF THE FENCE 203
Of your perilous pleasure!
What will it measure?
What will it garner of anguish for me
In the future to be?
Don't you see, don't you know
I must reap where you sow?
You may revel tonight;
But the poison, the blight.
The terrible sorrow
Are mine on the morrow."*
• The Cosmopolitan, January, 1915.
"At night returning, every labour sped.
He sits him down, the monarch of a shed;
Smiles by his cheerful fire, and round surveys
His children's looks, that brighten at the blaze:
"While his lov'd partner, boastful of her hoard.
Displays her cleanly platter on the board."
— Goldsmith — The Traveller 1. 191.
The ideals of the city, the state, the nation,
the school, and the church will never rise higher
than the ideals of the home, for the home is
the foundation of society as well as the most
ancient of all God-ordained institutions. "No
creature is so gregarious as man, and we can
hardly conceive him except as a member of
the family. . . . One of the best measures of
domestication in animals or of civilization in
man is the intensity of love of home. This is
a very complex feeling and made up of many
ties, hard to dissect, or even to enumerate.
Kline attempts to analyze the factors of love
of home, in order of their intensity, as follows:
love of parents, scenery, house, familiar ways,
freedom of opinion and conduct, relatives and
friends, animals, pleasant memories, sympathy^
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 205
etc. We also find specified the room, articles
of furniture, the garden, hills, trees, rocks,
meadow, streams, frankness of expression, leisure
to do as one pleases, liberty to arrange things
to one's taste. All these make up the content
of that magic word, home, of which the hearth
with its altar-fire is the heart. It inclines to
settled habits of life, is the converse of the rov-
ing instinct, and is largely woman's creation."^
The great problem demanding a satisfactory
solution is the problem of maintaining the whole-
some home ideals which make the American
home the nation's bulwark. Life today is speeded
to the eight-cylinder capacity, whether the scene
of action be Fifth Avenue or the East Side. The
ceaseless pursuit of wealth at the sacrifice of
honesty, and at the expense of health and real
happiness, the lowering of the morals of society
through a double standard of morality, the
false ambition of parents to force their children
into maturity before the charm of childhood
has even manifested itself, the struggle of pov-
erty, overcrowded housing conditions in the
modem cities, are all the evidences of a wrong
standard of living and largely responsible for
the spirit of imrest in human society.
"Parents control the bodies and minds, the
hearts and souls of their children, not so much
1 Hall, "Adolescence," Vol. II, p. 375.
by what their ancestors were as by what they
themselves do and think," says Oppenheim. An-
cestor worship will not vitally affect the present
or the future generation unless the spirit of
the past remains alive and is a dominating in-
fluence in home making and character building.
The spirit of the home maker who is conscious of
responsibility will manifest itself in a kind of
happiness and contentment found only in a
real home, whether humble or pretentious.
Somebody has said that homes are workshops
into which God sends little babies for parents
to fashion into men and women fit for His ser-
vice in the great world's work, and yet how
many home methods invite fatal disaster, as
\he countless number of half-built human taber-
nacles testify. "The three 'Modern Furies* are
insanity, suicide, and divorce," says John Horace
Lockwood. "The appalling rapid rise of the
divorce rate is due to faulty training of children,
morbid and unnatural views and habits of life,
and exaggerated sex-consciousness. This is clearly
shown by the uniformity with which insanity
and suicide keep pace with the divorce court.
Here are the figures:
Suicide Persons divorced
Insane in per 100,000 per 100,000
Institutions Population Population
In 1890 74,000 4.19 144
In 1910 187,791 15. 216
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 207
"The population of the United States in 1910
was 46.77 per cent greater than in 1890, but
the divorce rate had increased 50 per cent, the
suicide rate 258 per cent, and, while there is no
means of knowing the increased insanity rate,
the number of inmates of institutions for the
insane had jumped up 152 per cent."^ Accord-
ing to recent statistics, fifty-one per cent of the
boys in the reformatory schools of California
have come there through the breaking up of
homes by divorce. Many believe that this is
due to the lack of fixed ideals and obedience in
the bringing up of children, to fathers and
mothers who have been delinquent in their respon-
sibility, to a lack of "home" spirit, and the
failure of parents to recognize the child of today
as the home maker of tomorrow. Juvenile
delinquency is a by-product of parental de-
linquency. Juvenile Courts would be unneces-
sary if parents would stop letting out the training
of their children to others.
Parental delinquency does not always mean
the failure to provide clothes, food, shelter, and
an education, but rather the failure to recognize
the rights of boyhood and girlhood as well as
their potentialities; the failure to give sympathetic
companionship; to give time to answering the
serious questions; and to give love to heart-
2 The Mothers' Magazine, May, 1914, p. 9.
hungry adolescents. "It may be true that *man
is the architect of his own future,' yet the parent
is the architect of the child's character, and
society is coming more and more to hold the
parent accountable."^ Fathers cannot have a
vital part in the business of building their boys
into right kind of men by the use of the "absent
treatment" method. There is much truth, even
if written in the vein of satire, in the following
verses printed id the London Sunday School Times:
"He was a dog
But he stayed at homep
And guarded the family night and day.
He was a dog
That didn't roam.
He lay on the porch or chased the stray —
The tramps, the hen away;
For a dog's true heart for that household beat
At morning and evening, in cold and heat.
He was a dog.
"He was a man
And didn't stay
To cherish his wife and his children fair.
He was a man.
And every day
His heart grew callous, its love-beats rare.
He thought of himself at the close of day.
And, cigar in his fingers, hurried away
To the club, the lodge, the store, the show.
But — he had a right to go, you know!
He was a man."
» The Mother*' Magazine, October, 1914, p. 7.
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 209
Much could be said also in criticism of mothers
who become so absorbed in the uplift of other
people's children and humanity in general that
they wofuUy neglect their own flesh and blood.
Remembering Robert Burns' line, "A > chiel's
amang you taking notes," a questionnaire was
sent to a number of boys, requesting frank
replies to the following questions:
1. What one thing do you hke best about
2. What one thing would you like to have
your father do that he does not do?
3. What one thing do you like best about
4. Wliat one thing would you like to have
your mother do that she does not do?
The replies from 259 boys from good homes
are significant of the way a boy "takes notes."
The replies to question Number 1 were as
"That he is a Christian man."
"Interest in my doings."
"He treats me good."
"His cheerfulness and kindness at times."
"His fatherly love for the children."
"His willingness to give me advice on any
"Shows me things that will help me in life."
"His help and knowledge in my work."
"His purity in talking."
"He is like an older brother."
"Anxious to give me the best of education."
"He never si)eaks disrespectfully of any
"He is such a good comrade ^
"He is my best friend and chum."
"He treats me as a brother."
"He lets me do anything that I want that is
good and clean."
"He is a home-loving man."
"He gives me a square deal."
"His clean living."
"He gives me money."
"His help to support me."
"He does not smoke or drink."
Comradeship, cheerfulness, interest in the boy's
doings — in short it was the way father lived
rather than his preaching which made the deep-
est impression upon the boy.
The replies to question Number 2 were:
"I would like to have him go to church."
"Not to do any different because I have the
best father a fellow can have."
"I would like to have him play games with me."
**To be a father to me in all ways."
"Join the church."
"Hold the family to better religious attitude."
"Talk with me."
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 211
"Give his heart to Christ."
"Be home Sundays."
"Enter into social Ufe."
"Not to be so close with his money and be a
little more broad minded."
"Pay more attention to the Y. M. C. A." ^^
"I would like to have him take a vacation."
"He drinks intoxicating liquors at times and
I wish he would do away with it."
"Help me understand something of his business
and teach me to transact business as he does."
"Be more of a chum."
"Take more interest in athletics which I love."
"He's all right as far as I know."
"Be able to hold his temper better."
"Be more industrious."
"Show more interest in me."
Actions, the right kind of living, form the basis
of the boy's desire for his father. "Watch your
step" would be an excellent cautionary signal
The replies to question Number 3 were as
"Her loving care for me."
"Her interest in everything I do."
"Her unfailing care and kindness."
"She is a good mother."
"She is a good Christian."
"Her tireless working for the uplift of the
"Knows how to care for us when sick."
"Her love and a person to confide in."
"Her loving example."
"That she brought me into the world to find
the love and happiness of the fellowship of Jesus
"Her self-sacrificing manner."
"She is modest yet modem."
"She confides in me."
"She tries so much to please me."
"Her patience and loving-kindness."
"Her love for us kids."
"She is so thoughtful."
"She tries to make home what it should be."
"She has good common sense."
"Her devotion toward me."
"Kind, the best mother any boy would want."
"She is not in society.^' '
**Her never-failing faith in God" (father dead).
**That she is not cross."
"She stands up for me."
These are the silent ways in which a real mother
guides her boy to manhood, and because
"She has taught him matters of honor his part.
Her influence gentle is deep in his heart."
The replies to question Number 4 were:
"Nothing; I have the best mother any boy
"Go to church."
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 213
**To be a mother to me in all ways."
"I would like to have her belong to the King's
Daughters in my church."
"A better religious attitude in the home."
"Join the church."
"Think more of herself."
"Give her heart to Christ."
"Take more part in mid-week prayer meeting."
"To rest Sundays and do no work."
**To go out to see some of her friends."
"Npt pay so much attention to trivial things."
"To have her not work so hard."
"Be just a trifle more equal in her attention
to my brother and me; she favors the younger
boy slightly in many ways."
"Recognize the faults of her family."
"Let me have a little more freedom in the
"Be less industrious in cleaning."
"Not be so nervous."
"Be a better housekeeper."
"Take more time for herself."
"Get out into the air more."
"Be more thoughtful in her ways toward us
"Treat me as if I was not a baby."
If mothers would only give their boys an
opportunity for ^Tieart-to-heart" confession, not
fault finding, but expressions of genuine love
and interest, many anxious moments would never
•*0h the years we waste and the tears we waste.
And the work of our head and hand,
Because of the mother who did not know
(And did not care that she did not know)
And did not understand."
The moral standard of boys may be improved
by improving the moral standards of parents,
for as Judge John H. Mayo of the Manhattan
Children's Court says, "Once operated, the prin-
ciple will automatically work out its own salva-
tion — child bettering parent, parent bettering
child — and in turn will extend its influence to
the next possible circle or combination of child
and parent, or in other words, the home, which
is in fact, the *circle' figuratively and literally."
The incivility and discourtesy too often dis-
played by boys is but the reflection of home life.
Boys are clever imitators. Perhaps father does
not always extend to mother the courteous con-
sideration which a father would naturally expect
of others toward his wife. Oral teaching is non-
effective unless backed up by example. The
occasional family "scene" does much damage,
but the daily "call down" breeds discontent
which destroys the ideal home life. As the
sensitive film fastens the picture exposed upon
it by the camera lens, so the boy's eyes drink
in every action, and it is most difficult for him
to understand why father and mother should
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 215
not be fair and just and considerate of each
"As a barometer gauges the pressure of at-
mosphere so do boys display to the outside world
all the elements that characterize the more in-
timate family life,*' says a social writer. "Com-
pany manners are an ill-fitting garb when a
healthy young body is not accustomed to such
a garment for every day wear, and for that reason
boys are often embarrassing to their parents."
The little or big barometer has displayed the
fact that politeness is not the ordinary rule of
the family life. How easy it is to point out
the "only child," the "bully," the "spoiled boy."
"Respect thy father and mother" is an injunc-
tion for parents as well as for children. "Old-
time courtliness and graciousness of manner have
been gradually disappearing before the brusque
way of our modern life," says Hope Hammond.
"Family ties are dissolving, and it seems we are
leaving behind us the sweetest thing that this
old world has given us — fellowship — and fellow-
ship, in its deepest sense, is a relation between
mothers and fathers and their own children."
Sometimes I think that a healthy, normal
specimen of a boy is made up of fifty per cent
noise and fifty per cent dirt. The boy who is
never noisy and never gets dirty is abnormal,
and should be taken to a physician at once.
From the moment of his entrance upon the
stage of life until the final exit, noise is a part
of man's normal makeup. Observe a group of
small boys playing baseball — three fourths of the
time is sp>ent in noisy scrapping. The indi-
vidualistic instincts are in control. Team work
is a dormant quality. The high school boy has
organized his noise into a school yell, which he
uses to spur the team on to victory. Individual-
ism is here merged into the larger group of
humans. What would the Harvard- Yale football
game be without noise, without its cheering
sections, without its battery of cheer leaders?
Noise is psychologically necessary to the success
of the game.
If, however, a nervous, grouchy father comes
home in the evening, and this small edition of
noise has on hand an unexpended surplus and
gives even as much as a "yip," at once there is
an explosion on the part of father and the boy
is suppressed. Again, if the boy should happen
to be in one of his rare moods of quiet, mother
anxiously inquires, **What is the matter, Charlie,
you're so quiet? Don't you feel well?" If he
is noisy, he is called down; if he is quiet, he
causes anxiety! What is a boy to do? Why,
he instinctively seeks the gang, that coterie of
sympathetic souls, who have many secrets, nu-
merous codes of mysterious signs and calls, and
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 217
whose loyalty is the admiration of all social
service experts and church workers. More
opportunity at home for sane expression and
less insane repression would save many boys
from the evil influence of misled gangs.
When the home-coming of father becomes an
event to be looked forward to with delight, in-
stead of anticipated with fear, on the part of
the boy, there will take place a wonderful change
in our rapidly deteriorating American home life.
Making a Hving has become so problematic that
many fathers are failing to take enough time to
make a life, either for themselves or their boy.
Will the time ever come when a father will
close his oflSce door at night and say: "Good
night, business, you can't go home with me. I
have a boy who needs me tonight more than
you do. So long until morning;" or the industrial
worker lay down his tools at the close of the
day's work and say: "Good night, old pard,
here's where we part. The kids at home are
looking for their dad. I'll see you in the morn-
ing"? When that time does come, home, be it
ever so humble, will then become in fact, the
sweetest place on earth, instead of a place of
jars and contentions.
Not all homeless boys live in the slums. The
most homeless boy in the world is the boy who,
from the moment of his birth, is put into the
hands of a nurse, from a nurse goes to a gov-
erness, from a governess to a private tutor, from
a private tutor to a private school, from a pri-
vate school to a private camp, then on to college;
he has plenty of houses to live in, but no home.
Money can buy him luxm-ies and conveniences
and a following, but can never buy genuine
heart-love which only a father and mother can
supply. A philanthropic trustee of a well-con-
ducted foundling asylum told me that ninety per
cent of the babies who die in the asylums, die
not from the want of food and careful nursing,
but from the lack of "mothering," that peculiar
something which mothers, alone, can furnish
Boys and dirt have an affinity for each other.
The short-trousered boy looks upon soap as an
oppressor. He will never be accused of wearing
out doormats, for he is an expert in doormat
evasion. Mothers worry much over the dirt he
brings into the house, and cari>ets will show
the effect of his hard usage — but boys are more
valuable than carpets, and if the latter wear
out they can be replaced or done away with;
not so with a lost boy; he is a different proposi-
tion and not so easily handled. Many a boy
has been driven away from home because of the
continual war waged with broom and duster.
This is not a plea for a slovenly, dirty boy or
PAEENTAL DELINQUENCY 219
a slovenly, dirty home, but for sane sanitation
that saves boys, even if it does ruin carpets.
This dirt period lasts but a short time in a boy's
life, for almost in the twinkling of an eye he
merges into the fastidious period. It usually
occurs on a Saturday night when he evolves
from the short pant stage into the realm of long
trouserdom, and on Sunday morning he appears
in the garb of a real man — long trousers and all
the "fixings." Solomon in all his glory was not
arrayed like one of these long-trousered adolescent
It is at this period that the boy confuses
mannishness with manliness. He is inclined
toward the vices rather than the virtues. Father
should now be his chum and deftly steer him
clear of the shoals of life.
"It is a wise father that knows his own boy"
is an old saying containing much truth, but
conditions have changed in such a conspicuous
way that today it is a wise son that knows his
own father, intimately, lovingly, and with ac-
curacy. Too often the boy is compelled to go
to others outside the home for advice. A boy
wanted to talk with someone about a life problem,
so he sought the Boys' Work Secretary of an
Association in the Middle West. Before the
secretary suggested a way out, the question was
asked, "What is thought of the matter at home?"
"Well, Mamma thinks thus and so, and Papa
don't give a darn." Very little poetry but much
truth. It would be well for fathers to keep the
following in mind:
"It is good to have money
And the things that money can buy.
But it's good, too, to check up once in a while
And make sure you haven't lost
The things that money can't buy."
For father "not to care" is the rankest kind
of injustice to the boy as well as a glaring form
of parental dehnquency. Hugh Latimer once
said, "He who cannot give justice to a child
will never be just with himself."
No institution can ever take the place of home.
The boy's first and foremost need is the sym-
pathetic companionship of fathers and mothers.
He should not be "servantized," for no hireling,
however high-priced and discreet, can be as
good a companion as father or mother. Enter
into his feelings, respect his "crazes," share his
enthusiasm over sports, listen seriously to his
troubles, enjoy the out-of-doors with him, treat
him with respect, give him a distinct place and
part in the family life, encourage team work,
trust him. An eminent divine said in an address:
"The boy wants to find in his home, not a dor-
mitory, or club, but a place where all the home
sentiments are blessed and dominant. He also
PARENTAL DELINQUENCY 221
wants consistency. No deception need to be
tried on him. He also looks for piety in his
home, also simplicity; that is, he wants it to be
simply a home. He looks for the kind of piety
which means the recognition of that Other One
who is called the great Father, through grace
said before meals and the observance of the old-
fashioned virtue — family prayers."
Dean Bosworth hopefully writes: "I believe we
are on the eve of a great revival of family wor-
ship, not the old type, perhaps, formal and per-
functory, but simple, brief, frank, and natural. It's
a great thing for children to hear their fathers
pray." Here is the cure for parental delinquency
— a return to a normal home life, where love
rules supreme, where mutual sharing of joy and
sorrow is recognized, where family worship is
natural, and where parental honor and respect
is paid by children and the rights of children are
honored and respected by parents.
"Two great, strong arms; a merry way;
A lot of business all the day;
And then an evening frolic gay.
A happy face and sunny hair;
The best of sweetest smiles to spare;
The one you know is always there.
A bunch of lace and ru£By frocks;
A Teddy-bear; a rattle-box;
A squeal; some very wee pink socks.
A lot of noise; a suit awry;
A wish for candy, cake and pie.
My grammar may be wrong, but, my!
— B. E. W.
Skedaddling from Sunday School
"Man am I grown, a man's work must I do.
Follow the deer? follow the Christ, the King.
Live pure, speak true, right wrong, follow the King —
Else, wherefore born?"
Thus spake Gareth of old. The twentieth
century youth, however, seldom gets beyond the
first four words — "Man am I grown," for the
ideals of life have somewhat changed, and he
is inclined to follow the crowd in its mad search
for pleasure and financial success. Gareth 's ideals
are still the ideals of the Sunday school and they
clash with worldly ideals, so he "skedaddles."
Skedaddle means to run away. It is taken
from the Greek word "skedannumi" meaning to
retire tumultuously. In Scotland "skedaddle" is
used in the sense of spilling. If we are to take
seriously the reports which come from what are
considered reliable sources, older boys are liter-
ally retiring from Sunday school — if not tumul-
tuously, they are at least "spilling" out. One
of the largest Protestant denominations recently
reported a loss of thirty-one thousand children
from the Sunday school in one year. This start-
ling statement raised the query — Why? Accord-
ing to the findings of the Commission for the
Adolescent Period appointed by the International
Sunday School Association the proportion of boys
between 13 and 16 years of age, and that of
girls of the same age who dropped out of Sunday
school was 62 per cent, from 17 to 19 years of
age, 77 per cent. In other words, 62 out of every
100 younger boys — 13 to 16 — and 77 out of
every 100 older boys— 17 to 19— "skedaddle"
from the Sunday school at the time when they
need this anchorage most. Since the banishment
of definite moral and religious training from our
public schools and higher schools of education,
particularly those supported by state funds, the
only remaining institution for definite religious
instruction is the Sunday school. Pres. W. H.
P. Faunce makes this significant statement:
"In the exclusion of religious instruction from
the public schools and the failure of the church
to meet the consequent demand upon it for
religious education, I see a problem, the gravity
of which it is impossible to exaggerate. Our
National peril is that the supremely important
task of our generation will fall between the church
and the state and will be ignored by both. Mil-
lions are for this reason growing up in America
today without any genuine religious training. If
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 225
the home and the church shirk their responsi-
bility, our people will be in fifty years, a nation
without religion, i. e., a nation disintegrating
and dying. "^ It is therefore important that the
cause of this "spilling" should be located. To
get first-hand information the following question
was put to several thousand boys in conferences
of older boys, held in connection with the Men
and Religion Movement: "Why don't boys be-
tween 15 and 20 years attend Sunday school?"
Their answers, in the order of the largest number
of replies, were as follows:
"Too big and too old to go."
"Sunday school not interesting."
"Sunday school too *kiddish.' "
"Other attractions like *moving pictures.' "
"Nothing to do."
"Only for girls."
"Other boys make fun of them."
"Feel it unnecessary."
"Don't like women leaders."
"Too lazy to go."
"Not required by parents."
"No older boy classes."
"Not invited to go."
"Parents don't go."
Faunce, "Religious Education Association" address.
*T)on't want to go."
"Good enough now."
"Know it aU."
**Teacher too strict."
"Old-fashioned ideas taught."
"Church service enough."
'Teachers don't understand older boys."
"They outgrow it; teachers leave them."
"Absence of social life."
*The *rest of the bunch' don't go."
"Boys' sentiments are choked by teachers."
**Teachers irregular in attendance."
The majority of boys seemed to think that
they were too old and too big to attend Sunday
school. An elder in a Presbyterian church once
said, **We have lost a generation of men from
"How do you account for it.'^"
"Years ago we let the boys that are now men
slip out of our Sunday schools."
The big boy is a problem and for that reason
is all the more interesting. Sunday schools
which have tackled the problem intelligently and
in a statesmanlike manner have found that, like
all problems, it has a solution. No "big" boy
wants to be classified with the "kids." It is
not because of a lack of interest in religion that
he drops out, but largely because of misclassi-
fication. Childish songs do not appeal to him,
and there are op>ening exercises which cause
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 227
irritation, so he usually waits on the outside
until the agony, as he terms it, is over. This
waiting outside usually makes his real exodus
from the school easy. "The average boy is
short on long prayers, long sermons, and long
faces," and he tires, as well as retires, quickly
when these "virtues" are prominent in services
Another "Why" is, that the "gang" or the
rest of the "bunch" don't go. If Sunday school
attendance is unpopular with his gang, his
loyalty to the standards of the gang is stronger
than his loyalty to the school. The gang, as a
rule, are hedonic; that is, they regard enjoyment
as the chief good in life. They are not passive
but active during this period of "hedonhood";
the motto "Have a Good Time" governs their
actions. This is the reason why trouble is always
brewing in the older boys' class. Their inter-
pretation of a good time is different from that
of the teacher and superintendent. "Hedonists"
are made up of two parts impulse to one part
reason, and therefore go in the direction of the
strongest pull. If the gang says, "Let's go fishing,"
why fishing they go. To capture the gang and
line them up for active service is the solution.
Inefficient teachers is another "Why." A
teacher who is irregular in attendance soon dis-
covers he has no class to teach. A boy quickly
loses interest and is gone. Some teachers treat
a boy as if he were a machine rather than a hfe.
True, he is fearfully and wonderfully made, but
he is not an automaton. "Boys will not be
mechanically filled on Sundays from a teacher's
big *hopper-head.' " The boy soon tires even of
talking machines. A carelessly prepared lesson
is easily recognized by a wide-awake boy. He
is an X-ray machine and he can i>enetrate into
the very depths of a teacher. Nothing escapes
his eyes. A teacher who loses his temper will
soon lose his boys. "A misfit teacher ere long
means a missing boy." Boys are attracted by a
personality rather than by an institution or an
abstract principle, and as some one has wisely
said, "The teacher who does not enter in spirit
the strange *Big Boy world,' see there what he
sees, and feel, as nearly as possible, what he
feels, and then try to interpret to him the mean-
ing all these things hold for him, will lose him."
Much depends upon the teacher if older boys
are to be kept in the Sunday school.
The irrehgious atmosphere and indifferent re-
ligious influence of some homes is another "Why."
Father and many of the business men do not
go to Sunday school, why should he.'* "Stepping
in the steps of father" is not so much a fancy as
a fact. When father says "Come" instead of
"Gro," more boys will step in the path to the
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 229
Sunday school blazed by fathers, instead of
skedaddling away in the opposite direction.
"How shall we keep our older boys?" was once
asked at a conference. "Build a wall of men be-
tween them and the door'* was the reply. If this
wall be made up of fathers, so much the stronger.
Criticism or active opposition is another pa-
rental "Why'* that is responsible for scores of
boys leaving the Sunday school. Criticism of
minister, church, Sunday school, superintendent
or teacher which some boys hear in some homes
loosens the boy's grip on all things religious.
Church gossip in home conversation paralyzes
many a Sunday school's chance to hold and help
Lack of definite things to do is another "Why."
The Sunday school that is a "society for sitting
still" will soon find many vacant chairs which
were once occupied by growing boys. Youth
is a period of "doing things." There is a lack
of the appeal for service demanding sacrifice.
The boy is an earnest seeker after goodness, but
despises the "goody-goody." To come Sunday
after Sunday and hear about the "good, the beau-
tiful and the true" does not find a ready response
in the heart-blood that is coursing through his
veins and in the tremendous energy stored up
in his body throbbing for some definite form of
Irreverence for the Sabbath is another reason
"Why." One of America's greatest sins is irrever-
ence; irreverence for the Bible, the Church, the
ministry; irreverence of children for parents, of
younger for older, of Christians for sacred things.
"No Sabbath, no worship; no worship, no religion;
no religion, no morals; no morals, then — pandemo-
nium" is the deduction made by an observing
writer. The "Automobile" Sunday is a poor
substitute for the Puritan Sabbath, for while
the latter was perhaps devoid of joy, the former
is surely not a day of rest. Boys are whirled
away by parents in automobiles to some pop-
ular resort or distant parts, stuffed with food
and excitement, and brought back late at night
physically, mentally, and morally "tired out."
Only one experiment with this new form of
Sunday excitement is required to make the
Sunday school seem tame ever after.
Modern sensationalism is an irresistible pulling
force. The bulky, ill-smelling, poorly printed
Sunday paper invades the home at an early
hoiu*, and the boy is soon lost in the mess, for
it is indeed too often a queer "conglomeration
of hideous colors, crude drawings and cheap
humor." "They are the unfunniest pictures
ever conceived by the mind of man," says Lind-
sey Swift. "It is impossible to describe the
vulgarity and inanity of these drawings and
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 231
colorings." "These pictures," says The Nation,
"are more tragic than comic and more barbaric
than either." A Kbrarian says: "They are a cheap
travesty of real fun. The chief motifs are physi-
cal pain and deceit. They make fun of old age,
physical infirmities, of other races and religions
and undermine respect for law and authority."
G. Stanley Hall says that the Sunday news-
paper causes those who read it to "strike" the
key note of the day on a very low level. The
publicist, the journalist, the educator, the min-
ister, all agree that pictures of this sort produce
a low standard of life values.
Cheap motion picture entertainments on the
Sabbath attract many older boys into a kind of
environment which dulls all the ideals taught
in the Sunday school he may have attended
earlier in the day and takes the edge off any
zest he might otherwise have for things religious.
It is hard to throw off the spell of the "Movies"
and easy to cast away the influence of the Sun-
Industrialism which robs a boy of his Satur-
day afternoon of recreation and forces him into
Sunday pleasure is another "Why." Many
older boys are literally worn out at the end of
the week because of the grind of office, store, or
factory, and Sunday is the only time they have
to re-create and regain vitality. Sunday also
is a profitable day for the soda fountains, and
hundreds of older boys are lost to the Sunday
school because of their engagements to dispense
liquid refreshments to the tired and thirsty "rest-
seekers." A "day of rest" is a misnomer to the
victims of Sunday industrialism.
Another "Why" is a peculiar kind of modern
skepticism which blatantly derides everything
that is religious. The older boy who is just
beginning to be independent in his thinking
hears this cheap, street-corner scoffing at religion
and sacred things and his whole view of life
becomes poisoned. His reasoning faculties have
not yet matured sufficiently to determine for
himself the difference between intellectuality and
slander. With this kind of conversation pouring
into his ears six days of the week, his attitude
toward the Sunday school is not friendly, and it
requires a strong personality and a program full
of sane intellectualism to counteract this vicious
Failure to understand the older boy is per-
haps the greatest "Why." A superintendent
tactlessly separated a class of fifteen older boys
into two classes, without consulting them, with
the result that the enrolment of the school was
reduced by fifteen. After considerable persuasion
of friends and some coercion of parents five of
the boys returned to the school. A sympathetic
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 233
man teacher succeeded in interesting and holding
the class and it grew to ten boys. Just when
this class reached its height a second time this
same superintendent repeated his action and
separated the class. It took a conference between
the pastors, the teacher, and the ten boys to
win them back to the school. Gangs refuse to
be separated and a failure to understand this
by-law of boy life is fatal.
InsuflScient time during the Sunday school
period for the study of the lesson is another
"Why." Older boys enjoy a discussion, but
the time given does not permit of this interest-
holding method. In the Child Welfare Exhibit
held in New York several years ago, the follow-
ing statement printed upon a huge standard
impressed me very much: "Thirty minutes a
week for religious instruction in Protestant
churches, whereas in the day school the instruc-
tion in mathematics would be equivalent to
forty-one years of Sunday school instruction."
When the significance of this statement is realized
we wonder that so few boys have "skedaddled"
instead of so many. Even this thirty minutes
is often frittered away and many times seems
difficult to occupy fully. If the boy has added
to this thirty minutes an hour's study of the
Bible in a Young Men's Christian Association,
as compared with the time spent in the secular
schools, he is receiving but a small proportion
of the religious education which will fit him to
live not only upon this earth, but for eternity.
"Only thirty minutes.** How many teachers
look upon this thirty minutes as a supreme
Many Sunday schools are not yet aware of
the seven days a week hold upon the boy and
therefore make no provision for his week-day
interests. There are one hundred and one varie-
ties of activities for boys which may be legit-
imately developed by the Sunday school. While
church vestries and Sunday school rooms were
not erected to abuse, yet their efficient use re-
mains to be demonstrated.
How to stem the out-going tide of boys from
the Sunday school will be discussed in the next
chapter. There are many problems to consider.
The youth looks forward. What he shall do in
life is a question of vital concern to him. The
Sunday school must give him that inspiration
and counsel or else he will seek elsewhere. If
a boy is lost to the Sunday school he is lost to
the Church and to society.
BROTHER, SAVE THE BOY
"Brother, save the boy —
The boy of the early teens.
Thirteen on to sixteen years.
TOO BIG FOR SUNDAY SCHOOL 235
Land of strange, foreboding fears,
Land of heartaches, sighs, and tears —
Save the boy.
"Brother, save the boy —
The boy of the early teens.
Boy no longer, boyhood gone,
Now approaching manhood's dawn.
Adolescent brain and brawn —
Save the boy.
"Brother, save the boy —
The boy of the early teens.
Immature, emotions rife.
Choppy waves on lake of life.
Time of stress and storm and strife —
Save the boy.
"Brother, save the boy —
The boy of the early teens,
Growing fast and faster still.
Stomach like a sausage-mill.
Lack of judgment, stubborn will —
Save the boy.
"Brother, save the boy —
The boy of the early teens.
Love for freedom, love of might.
Love of justice, 'honor bright,'
Love of food and fun and fight —
Save the boy.'*
Stemming the Tide
"There ia a tide in the affairs of men.
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries."
Just as truly there is a tide in the affairs of
the Sunday school, which, if taken at the flood,
will permanently hold the boy, but if omitted,
the older boys, at least, will silently pass out
into life's ocean like ships without rudders. In
eight years 11,000,000 scholars passed through
the Sunday schools of the United States without
manifesting any definite decision for the Chris-
tian life.^ While we do not believe that every
scholar who gave up Sunday school attendance
had a moral decline, yet it is safe to say that
they were unable to resist the waves of tempta-
tion, which buffeted them from every side, with
the same spirit of confidence and faith as in the
days when they were supported by the moral
strength of Sunday school attendance. A Brook-
1 Statistics 12th Int. S. S. Con., Louisville, Ky., 1908.
STEMMING THE TIDE 237
lyn judge in sentencing a young man of nineteen
to a term in Elmira for burglary said: "Of all
the undesirable professions, that of burglary is
the worst. No matter how good a burglar you
may be, you will be caught and sent to prison
sooner or later. I have seen your friends who
wished to speak to me about you and I find that
all attempts to have you go to Sunday school
have failed. In the five years I have been sitting
on this bench I have had two thousand seven
hundred boys before me for sentence, and not
one of them was an attendant of a Sunday
school. Had you gone there I am sure you would
not be before me today."
In 1910 appeared a statement by a social
worker, regarding the chances of a boy's going
astray under modern living conditions, which
challenges not only attention but thought. His
deductions were as follows:
Penitentiary 1 to 240
Tramps 1 to 300
Drunkards 1 to 13
Vicious 1 to 17
Couple these deductions with the experience
of those who come daily in contact with the
misery and crime of life as seen in the police
courts, and you have presented for serious con-
sideration a condition and not a theory, which
religious organizations cannot ignore nor lay on
the table for future palaverings.
The same boys who were questioned as to the
excuses and reasons older boys give for not
attending Sunday school, were asked the ques-
tion, '*Why do older boys go to Sunday school
and remain there?" From hundreds of replies
written and verbal we give the following:
"Personality and attachment for teacher."
"Got the habit."
"Was given something to do."
"Desire for religious teachings."
"Meets their ideals."
"Because of nice girls."
"Because of music."
"Loyalty to the class."
"Driven to it."
The Sunday schools which considered the above
in their policy and program of work succeeded in
STEMMING THE TIDE 239
stemming the outgoing tide of boys to the extent
of 43 per cent of boys between thirteen and six-
teen years, and 44 per cent between seventeen
and nineteen years. A serious effort is being
made to understand the boy better and to pro-
vide intelligently for his moral and religious
growth through the Sunday school. The returns
to the Church made by the Sunday school are
all out of proportion to the investment made
by the Church in the Sunday school.
75 per cent of all churches,
95 per cent of all preachers,
95 per cent of all church workers,
85 per cent of all church members,
have come up through and are products of the
Sunday school. These are marvelous results
when we remember that: pastors give it not over
ten per cent of their time; parents give it not
over ten per cent of their time; theological sem-
inaries give it not over one per cent of their
time; religious papers give it not over one per
cent of their space and the Church gives it not
over one per cent of its money. In other words,
for about five per cent of its investment of time
and money, the Church gets about ninety per
cent of its highest and best results from the
The answers received from the boys reveal
how personality proves to be the great staying
force. Whenever a man of character and virility
is selected as a teacher of boys between twelve
and nineteen, eighty per cent of the difficulties
in holding boys to the Sunday school are re-
moved. Never has the call for strong, forceful.
Christian men of education to invest their per-
sonality in teaching a class of boys in the Sunday
school, been sounded so loudly as today. Boys
have demonstrated their willingness to follow
this kind of leadership. Religious education is
now left completely to the Church and the home.
The awakening to the responsibility of this
great task is seen throughout the various branches
of the Church. The unpreparedness to measure
up to her opportunity is causing Institutes for
Teacher Training to spring up almost as rapidly
as the proverbial mushrooms and with about
as much stability. There is great danger of
producing "half baked*' teachers who have a
book knowledge or Correspondence Course cer-
tificate, but who are void of heart and a genuine
desire to win the boy to the Master, and lacking
most in that fine quality of life called balance.
"Of all subject matters," says Prof. Home, "re-
ligion is both the most important and the worst
taught: most important because it brings men
into relations with the most real Being; worst
taught, perhaps both because least understood
and requiring most from the teacher. The
STEMMING THE TIDE 241
opportunity confronting the Sunday school is
unique among educational institutions."
If the answer of the boy "Personality of and
attachment for teacher'* which was given as the
reason for remaining in the Sunday school was
analyzed, the summing up would be, "His in-
terest in me." "Where the teacher's life is
guided by the idealism of a true Christian faith,"
says Franklin McElfresh, "where Christ himself
is the object of the heart's deepest loyalty, this
inner life will be felt and appreciated by the
boys, though they will seldom express it. These
are the days when life comes to climaxes, when
the will makes its great decisions. ... If the
teacher fails to win the boy to Christ, to the
Church, to the clean life, and to a noble purpose,
he has lost the days of richest opportunity; for
never again will the boy be so free from prejudice
or influence from without."^
Without this interest, teaching will be non-
productive. "To call forth the native powers
of the soul into the world of action" is the pur-
pose of education.
"We teach and teach.
Until like drumming pedagogues, we lose
The thought that what we teach has higher ends
Than being taught and learned."
If what is taught is the Gospel, then will the
2 McElfresh, "The Training of S. S. Teachers," p. 143.
soul respond, for the words of Jesus are spirit
and are life. Lifeless teaching cannot produce
action and desire for service.
"Got the habit" was another answer by the
boys. Someone has said that habit is very hard
to get rid of, for if you rub out the **h" you still
have "abit," and if you rub out the "ab" you
still have "it."
"How did you form the Sunday-school-going
habit.''" was asked a number of boys by the
writer, and the following answers are typical of the
large number of replies:
"Parents taught me to go."
"The habit was formed when a Sunday School
Indoor Baseball League was started by the
Y. M. C. A.; a rule was that only one Sunday
could be missed out of every three. I go now with-
out missing one if I can help it."
"A certain man asked me to come one Sunday,
so I went, and I have been pretty steady ever
"Kept going until I enjoyed it."
The boy who has the Sunday-school-going habit
should be encouraged to keep it healthy and
vigorous and not be permitted to have "it" be-
come weak and anemic through the non-attend-
ance of a teacher or the lack of interesting les-
sons. By some strange process of nature good
habits die much younger than bad habits, and
yet some good habits live to a good old age.
STEMMING THE TIDE 243
It was the habit of the Master to go regularly
to the Synagogue.
First impressions are always lasting impres-
sions. A cordial greeting has proven to be the
best kind of a holding attraction. To be re-
ceived by a human icicle results in a "freeze
out." A hearty, warm handgrasp, coupled with
a straight look in the eye of the stranger, has
won many to the Sunday school and Church.
The reason why a boy went to a Sunday school
several miles from his home in preference to the
one located on the block near his house was, he
said, "Because they Uke a fellow down there."
Beware of the man who greets strangers with
the "clammy" handshake, and a bromidic phrase.
He can do much harm. Put the cheerful man
in front, the man who, as Addison says, has
"a cheerful temper, which, joined with innocence,
will make beauty attractive, knowledge delight-
ful, and wit good natured." The Sunday school
should be a cheerful place. "Cheerfulness is an
excellent wearing quality; it has been called the
bright weather of the heart." "Be of good
cheer" was a favorite expression of Jesus Christ,
and worthy of emulation by His ambassadors.
"Was given something to do" has been the
salvation of thousands. What are some of the
things Sunday school classes are doing? A
popular way to describe class activities is known
as the fourfold type of activities: physical, such
as athletics, games, camping, lectures on hygiene,
etc.; social, such as home and church socials,
entertainments, game tournaments, exhibitions,
musicals, etc.; mental, such as practical talks,
life-work talks, educational trips, citizenship, etc.;
spiritual, such as organized Bible classes, church
membership, cooperation in church activities,
winning others, etc., etc."^
Service was the great appeal of Jesus Christ.
It was His definition of greatness. "He that
would be greatest among you, let him be servant
of all." The kind of service which challenges,
especially older boys, is that which demands
sacrifice. "Self-seeking brings chaos." "Jealousy
is nitrogen," and "Service saves from self,"
are sentences which should be reiterated until
they become dynamic in the lives of men and
boys. Inter-church organizations promote fellow-
ship and strengthen the Brotherhood idea. "No
man liveth imto himself"; neither should a
church be self -centered. Community competi-
tion should be changed into community coopera-
tion. This does not always mean federation,
but it does mean unity and harmony in work
that promotes righteousness and community
« Alexander, "The Boy and the Sunday School" — list of activities,
STEMMING THE TmE 245
This can best be done through the organized
class. Boys are enthusiastic "joiners." Numer-
ous buttons displayed on coat lapels or on vests
are the sign of belonging to something. It is
easier to organize boys than to organize any
other kind of business. Micawber-Hke, they are
waiting for some new organization to turn up.
The boy is the patron saint of many industries
which are kept busy turning out celluloid buttons,
watch fobs, fraternity pins, society stationery,
scout suits, camping outfits, and the hundred
and one things needed in equipping his many
Some time ago I made a study of the various
organizations of boys and discovered forty-four
to be in existence. Many of them have three
degrees, each of them having insignia and ritual.
Some were educational, some altruistic, some
semi-reHgious, and a large proportion religious.
The "get-together" instinct demands expression
and the Sunday school which wisely and tact-
fully encourages organized classes and week-day
societies will find them to be a great ally in
holding boys. Every organization should lead
to the building up of Christian character, for
after awhile, the uniform regalia and scout cos-
tume loses its attraction, and the little button
on the coat lapel or watch fob is the extent of
his outward identification of membership. His
work now should mean more to him than his
uniform. If he is tied up to an organized Bible
class, he has something permanent and which
he cannot outgrow. At fifteen scouting and
knighthood cease to interest him, and at eighteen
or twenty he is usually through with fraternities
and orders, or else he is in college, where the
fraternity means something of a different nature.
He outgrows this type of organization as he out-
grows a suit of clothes. Graduation from these
orders very often means graduation from the
Sunday school and Church. All kinds of activ-
ities may be injected into an organized Bible
class, and the class organization kept flexible
enough for an adjustment to every stage of boy
development and all its physical, social, mental,
and spiritual needs.
Many Sunday schools are finding that the
organization of a Boys* Department is another
method of holding boys. The idea originated
some years ago in Holyoke, Mass., and is known
as the Holyoke plan. It is the grouping to-
gether of organized classes for the sake of imity
and team work among the adolescent boys. The
classes are composed of boys between twelve and
eighteen years of age, and meet as a separate
department of the school, having its own superin-
tendent, its own opening and closing services
and those activities in which boys would naturally
STEMMING THE TIDE 247
be interested. In some Sunday schools the
department meets once a month with the com-
bined departments and participates in the pro-
gram. Wherever this plan has been tried it has
increased the attendance of boys and created a
genuine interest and enthusiasm for the entire
church Hfe. The Boys' Department is not merely
a system of sex segregation, although a good
many educators are urging the segregation of
the sexes in public education; it is a clear under-
standing of the gang principle which clamors
for club or organization. The neglect of the
Sunday school to recognize the organizing or
"joining" instinct was the reason why so many
boys' organizations sprang into existence outside
The adolescent period of life cannot be treated
as a unit, for
"As each new life is given to the world.
The senses — like a door that swings two ways —
Stand ever twixt its inner waiting self
And that environment with which its lot
Awhile is cast.
A door that swings two ways:
Inward at first it turns, while nature speaks.
Then outward, to set free an answering thought."
"Childhood learns the world and conforms to
it. With adolescence comes the consciousness
of a new self within the soul. The mysteries of
his own personality now challenge him to search
them out. He finds himself occupied with the
problems of a free person. Toward persons he
begins to act as a person, no longer imitatively,
but freely, independently. Later he discovers
that he is a member of society. The self-centered
life is being transformed into the socialized life
of the man and the claims of the social order
are one by one enforced upon him. The long
and passionate struggle of a youth's restless years
is to get a correct adjustment of personal and
social relations with the persons who make up
the human world about him and the Supreme
Person above. On correct adjustment here, the
blessedness or the perdition of life depends; the
burden of responsibility cannot be shifted; each
must make his own adjustment, with fatal re-
sults, for weal or woe; and that is why," says
McKinley, "the hopes of youth are such bound-
ing hopes, the sorrows of youth such poignant
sorrows."* It is here that the graded lessons
prove so helpful, and so effective in stemming
the tide of outgoing boys from the Sunday
school. What was good for them two years ago,
is now full of barren platitudes, mere goody-
goodiness, because their souls are ready for a
deep)er, and a more personal religion. Such
* McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," Chap. VII.
STEMMING THE TIDE 249
courses as "The World: A Field for Christian
Service," "The Problems of Youth in Social
Life," "The Books of Ruth and James," a series
prepared by Sidney A. Weston, Ph.D., of the
Pilgrim Press, and "Athletes of the Bible," by
Brink and Smith (Association Press), and other
similar courses, have in them the service appeal,
and afford opportunity for discussion.
"There are four chief instruments of education,"
says McKinley — "impression, instruction, asso-
ciation, and self-expression. These answer in a
general way to the four principal forms of re-
ligious exercise, worship, disclpleship, fellowship,
and service: and from the use to be made of
these instruments to promote the religious ad-
justments of the soul to God, the primary prin-
ciples governing the agencies and methods of
religious work for youth may be deduced."^
When the Sunday school becomes the Bible
school, with its carefully planned and graded
departments, with its services of worship, then
a new respect will be shown by the older boys
and a loyalty, not even dreamed of, will be
• McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," p. 227.
The Church, the Preacher, the Sermon,
"Two men went up into the Temple of God. One
went to listen to the music critically, as he would listen
at a concert, and to see if the preacher would be able to
say some new thing that day. The other went to wor-
ship God, and the music seemed to him fitted to help
the soul rise as on eagle's wings; and the simple word of
the preacher seemed to him the word of God coming
from the Father through a brother's heart. And all the
week God seemed nearer to him because of that hour
in the Father's House." — From a Church Calendar.
"Morbus Sabbaticus, or Sunday sickness," de-
scribed by an unknown author, "is a disease
peculiar to the male portion of the conununity.
The symptoms vary, but it never interferes with
the appetite. It never lasts more than twenty-
four hours. No physician is ever called. It
always proves fatal in the end — to the soul.
It is becoming fearfully prevalent, and is destroy-
ing thousands every year.
"The attack comes on suddenly every Sunday;
no symptoms are felt on Saturday night; the
patient sleeps well and wakes feeling well; eats
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 251
a hearty breakfast, but about church time the
attack comes on and continues until services
are over for the morning. Then the patient feels
easy and eats a hearty dinner. In the afternoon
he feels much better and is able to take a walk
or a motor ride, and read the Sunday papers;
he eats a substantial supper, but about church
time he has another attack and stays at home.
He wakes up Monday morning refreshed and able
to go to work, and does not have any symptoms
of the disease until the following Sunday.'*
The spread of this peculiar disease — "Morbus
Sabbaticus'* — has been so prevalent that the
Church has become alarmed and has instituted
a campaign to stamp it out, known as the "Go-
to-Church" Sunday; also stereopticon pictures,
moving pictures, religious dramas, augmented
music, and other devices of drawing power, have
been used with varying effect, the patient rally-
ing for a time only to relapse into a state of
innocuous lassitude. Easter and Christmas are
hypodermic injections, stimulating church at-
tendance for the day only. There comes a time
in the treatment of chronic cases when heroic
measures must be resorted to if the life of the
patient is to be saved. A thorough diagnosis is
made of the patient and the disease. After
consultation between the attending physicians a
decision is reached. This decision may mean to
operate or to send the patient away for a change
of environment, or the use of auto-suggestion to
release the patient from the power of hallucination.
This analogy between physician and patient
may not be absolutely the same as between
Church and people, yet there is a similarity,
for today there exist too many churchless boys
and boy less churches. There was a time when
parents not only attended church but took the
children with them, when the family pew was
occupied by the family, when the Sabbath was
looked forward to as a day of worship and rest,
when the preparation for the Sabbath began
on Saturday by the doing of many things on
that day which would free the Sabbath from
even household cares, in order that the spirit
of rest might envelop the home.
According to the figures of H. K. Carroll, the
seating capacity of the Protestant Churches in
the United States in 1910 was 40,082,237, while
the total communicant membership was 14,229,-
940. This leaves room for 25,852,297 additional
men, women, and children who may care to
attend worship on Sunday without disturbing
the communicants."^ The average increase since
1913, for all religious bodies, great and small.
Christian and non-Christian, is 2 per cent.^
1 Carroll, "The Religious Forces of the United States," p. 393.
* "Churchmen Afield," Boston Transcript, February 13, 1914.
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 253
In order to find out why the older boys don't
go to church, 243 older boys were questioned.
These boys were Sunday school attendants in
some 70 cities and towns. The replies and the
number giving them were as follows:
49 "Services not interesting."
26 "There is nothmg to do."
24 "Not interested."
23 "Don't understand the sermons."
13 "Appeal of other influences."
12 "Companions don't go."
12 "Don't feel the need."
9 "Sunday amusements."
8 "Outside attractions."
8 "Too big."
7 "Don't get up early enough."
7 "Not welcomed."
6 "Not encouraged to go."
6 "Parents don't go with them."
4 "Other boys laugh at them."
3 "Not invited."
3 "Too tired."
3 "Only for women."
2 "Sunday school enough."
2 "Services too dry."
2 "Preacher not friendly."
2 "Because parents urge."
2 "Ignorance of the service."
2 "Too lazy."
2 "Stay home and read."
2 "Rather be out of doors."
1 "Unable to sit still."
1 "For old people."
1 "So few men attend."
1 "Feel out of place."
1 "Not started right."
The instinct of worship is inborn in every
human heart. Everybody worships something,
a dog, a black pipe, a stone god — something.
Christians worship the triune God — the Father,
the Son, and the Holy Spirit. To keep worship
alive and make it a vital factor in the everyday
life of the individual is the supreme function of
the Church. "Instincts and desires and tenden-
cies, it is found, do not educate without the
appropriate materials for their satisfaction. Nor
is it enough that there should be materials with-
out instincts." Reverence is one of the regulative
instincts. Worship is the reverence and homage
which is, or ought to be, paid to God and should
include adoration, sacrifice, praise, prayer, thanks-
giving, song, and silence. Worship should mean
something more than mere forms and ceremonies.
"Let us Pray" too frequently means "Let him
Pray," to congregations who sit with eyes wide
open, head erect, and in a non-participating atti-
tude. Many times the collection plate is given
the vacant look instead of a cheerful gift. These
are acts of worship now in great danger of atrophy.
Personally, I am a firm believer in the family
pew system. With the going out of the family
pew, also went the family. Free pews do not
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 255
seem to attract great audiences of staying quality.
Boys and girls worshiping with their parents at
the morning service on Sunday are a rare sight
today, except in churches which have come to
beUeve that the service should be made to appeal
to the children as well as adults. In the Central
Congregational Church of Worcester they have a
Go-to-Church band. While it originally was
started for children, it has broadened out. The
band is divided into two classes, i. e., thirteen
years old and younger, and fourteen years old
and older. It is not considered anything un-
usual to have at a morning service a hundred
children. In England they have what is called
a League of Worshiping Children which has
revolutionized church attendance.
In reply to the question, "What is your Best
Habit; how did you form it?" Eighty-six replied
"Going to Church." The answers they gave to
the second part of the question are interesting.
"By going to the boys' club and meeting boys
who went to church, and who I was very intimate
with and went around with, therefore, I started
going to church and attend fairly regular."
"My parents took me to church and Sunday
school as long as I can remember. I am now
sufficiently interested in church to attend of my
"By attending Sunday school and Young
**Most of my friends went and they induced
me to go. I went, liked it, and have joined."
"By beginning when I was young. Many
Sundays I ahnost hated to go, but my parents
made me go when younger; now I enjoy it and
can hardly wait for Sunday. I also teach a class
of five boys of 12 years average age in the Sunday
*'My father was janitor and I always went
"Through being a member of the choir."
"By continued going and because of the
"By the *Go to Church Band.' "
"My father is a minister."
"I made up my mind to go."
"When I joined the church two years ago,
the minister said in taking us into the fellowship
of the church that it was our solemn duty to be
present at as many meetings as possible, so from
that have fallen into the habit of going to church
"From my early childhood I was taught to
go to church but was not forced. I used to
hate to go, but as I grew older I enjoyed it more,
therefore I get more out of it."
"By joining it and becoming active in its work."
"At the death of my mother I went to no
church. Shortly after that I was asked by a
boy to go to Sunday school with him. I did and
continued to go steady now for about six years."
"I started one Sunday when the Boy Scouts
had exercises and then about one year after that
I joined the church."
"Well, I just like it."
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 257
"My experience in forming this habit was
strange enough. I got so grouchy about home
that my mother and father sent me to church
every Sunday, to get rid of my grouchiness.
So this way I got the habit formed, so now I
like to go."
"By attending Older Boys' Conference."
"Through my Sunday school teacher."
"Through the Knights of King Arthur."
The attendance of boys and girls at the morn-
ing service may mean the rearrangement of the
family plans for Sunday morning. One pastor
found it necessary to publish in the church
calendar the following:
BEATITUDES FOR CHURCHGOERS
"Blessed are those who rise early Sunday morning,
for they get to church on time."
"Blessed are those who get to church on time, for they
arrive in the spirit of worship.'*
"Blessed are those who are never late, for they cause
the minister and choir to love them."
■ ''Blessed are those who must be late, who do not enter
during the Scripture lesson or prayer."
"Blessed are those who come even at the eleventh hour,
but church begins at quarter before eleven."
It is unnecessary to add that the number desir-
ing to be classified with the first "blesseds" be-
came increasingly large.
In answer to the question, "What is keeping
you from joining the Church?" a few of the
many replies given by boys are as follows:
"Not old enough."
"Not ready to join."
"Too much responsibility."
"Because the other boys have not."
"I want to see if I can live up to it first."
"I am too young." (He was sixteen years old.)
"My parents think I am too small to under-
stand what I am doing."
"Haven't had time to consider."
"I do not think I am good enough."
"My parents prefer that I should wait."
"Some of the pleasures of the world which I
am undecided about giving up."
"I am not sufficiently instructed in things as
I should be."
"Good enough outside the Church."
"Because I cany Sunday morning papers."
**The pastor at the church my parents attend
has been there forty years, and is a little bit
stale. I would join another one but I know they
would like to have me join that one, so I am
waiting to see if he won*t resign or do something
In the chapter on the religious characteristics
of boyhood we dealt very thoroughly with the
"why" a boy should join the Church, making
it unnecessary to enlarge upon the subject in
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 259
this chapter, except to add that "to make a
Sunday school boy instead of a church boy is
a net loss." The Church must provide in its
services of worship a place for the boy and it
is here where the minister has an important task
to perform. In the struggle for the body and
soul of a boy there is no aid that is comparable
with religion. "Thousands of honest, serious-
minded men frankly confess that in modern
conditions they see little hope of this battle
being won without religion as a sanction of
right conduct. The boy needs God, a God to
whom he can pray in the hour of temptation.
He needs to regard his life with all its powers
as God's investment, which he must not squander
or pervert,*' says Prof. Hoben.
To reach a boy, the minister must not depend
alone upon the formal work of the pulpit. He
must understand boys. Not every minister real-
izes the value of a boy. Well-governed cities,
efficient schools, happy homes, vitalized churches
of the future, depend upon the boys of today.
The boy is the key to the future and the chief
problem before the minister is the winning of
the next generation for Christ and his Church.
"Boys' work then," says Prof. Hoben, "is not
providing harmless amusement for a few trouble-
some youngsters; it is the natural way of cap-
turing the modern world for Jesus Christ. It
lays hold of life in the making, it creates the
masters of tomorrow; and may preempt for the
Kingdom of God the varied activities and star-
tling conquests of our titanic age."^
Again, going to the "source of wisdom" — the
boy — for an answer to the question of "how a
minister can help a boy," the following replies
"Have confidence in him."
"By doing what is right."
"By sticking to him and tell him when he does
a wrong thing."
"To pray for him."
"By writing him helpful letters."
"Encouraging him to do right."
"Teaching him the difference between right and
"Being kind to him."
"By being a boyish man with the boys and
making the boys manly boys."
**Taking interest in the things that the boys
are interested in."
"By example and advice."
"By keeping him away from bad companions."
"When a boy is in trouble tell him what to do."
"By teaching the Bible to him."
"Be a true Christian friend to him."
"By not doing anything in front of a boy that
the boy ought not to do."
"Don*t holler at him when he does wrong, but
» Hoben, "The Minister and the Boy," p. 5.
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 261
"By gaining his confidence."
"By answering a boy*s questions."
"By realizing that he was a boy once and
sympathizing with him."
How quickly the boy analyzes the make-up
of a grown man. He has no time for shams,
make-believes, and mask-wearers. "To be 'rev-
erend' means such character and deeds as compel
reverence and not the mere *laying on of hands.*
Work with boys discovers this basis, for there
is no place for the holy tone in such work, nor for
the strained and vapid quotation of Scripture,
no place for excessively feminine virtues, nor for
the professional handshake and the habitual
inquiry after the family's health. In a very
real sense many a minister can be saved by the
boys; he can be saved from that insidious class-
ification of adult society into *men, women and
ministers,' which is credited to the sharp insight
of George Eliot."'
The minister who schools himself in the art
of leading others into paths of service is the
minister who will not only fill the pews of his
church but save souls from a sordid selfishness.
On a church calendar appeared the names of
four "Minister's assistants." This was so un-
usual, especially as the church was located in
a small town of less than five thousand inhab-
* Hoben, "The Minister and tlie Boy," p. 9.
itants, that inquiry was made of the pastor
at the close of the service; and it was found that
these assistants were four boys who stood ready
to do whatever the minister required. Their
names on the church calendar helped to impress
upon them their responsibility and the boys
considered it a great honor to be selected for
such a position of service. On the last page of
the calendar was printed this paragraph:
THE WORK OF THE CHURCH
There is a place and work for everyone in the many
departments of our church activity. Each one is there-
fore earnestly invited to share in the responsibility as
well as in the joy and privilege of this work.
In another church the minister used the Sun-
day school class organizations by making them
responsible for the Wednesday evening services.
One night the Baraca class led the meeting;
another the Philatliea class conducted it; another
night the older boys' class discussed Cabot's
book "What Men Live By— Work, Play, Love,
Worship"; another night the Dorcas class as-
sumed the responsibility for the service; and on
another occasion the Choir was in charge and
discussed the Ministry of Music. This minister
had learned the art of using others in conducting
services, as well as in rendering service.
"What do You Like Best About Your Minister
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 263
and His Sermons?" was a question put to a
large group of boys. A few of the replies are
"Ability to tell stories and to illustrate truth."
"Special sermons to older boys."
"Minister who was a man, human being, not
too holy — holier than thou attitude."
"Short sermons — not over forty minutes."
"Power as speaker. Oratorical."
In answer to the question as to what kind of
sermons they would preach to boys if they were
ministers, these replies were received:
**The Church and Its History."
'*The Church and Its Principles."
"Boys and the Church."
"Bible as History."
"The Boy and His Opportunity."
**Temptations of Boyhood."
"Benefits of Church attendance."
"Why join the Church."
"Bible characters applied to older boyhood."
"What boys can do for the Church."
"Lives of Great Men."
To sum it up in the words of Charles E. Mc-
Kinley: "We must deal with youth in vital, not
formal, ways. They are to be regarded, not as
factors in the parish organization, but as actors
in its life. The very first thing required is that
the Church itself shall take cognizance of its,
youth; as a worshiping body, it must be aware
of them, sensitive to their presence, responsive
to their needs. Youth should be in our congre-
gations as in our homes; their place is not the
nursery, but the family hving-room. There is
no call to order either the church or the home
life entirely to suit them, for they are only a
part of the family, but it is a righteous demand
that they shall not be ignored."
"It would be natural to say, in the next place,
that the church services should be adapted to
youth; but this has been already done. No
violent reconstruction of our methods of worship,
no radical change in the style of preaching, is
required by the interests of youth; all that is
necessary is to be true to the ideals now cher-
ished. The nearer we come to the ideal church
service, the nearer we come to what youth wants.
Dull sermons, tedious prayers, ^ballooning' by
the choir, are no more profitable for age than
for youth. But the perennial freshness of the
gospel imparts a youthful spirit to the very na-
ture of Christian worship. We all go to church
to have renewed in us the hopefulness and con-
fidence, the courage and assurance, the fresh
enthusiasm and glad anticipations, that are
youth's own property. Surely if this atmosphere
THE CHURCH AND THE BOY 265
is in the service, youth will feel at home there.
And when it comes to the teaching, the doctrine,
the sermon, there is hardly a greater homiletic
mistake than to suppose that the best thought
of a mature mind presented in the most effective
way to reach earnest men is not the proper food
for the youth. Children's sermons may be very
well for children now and then, but they are
an abomination to boys in long trousers; what
they need is the preacher's best thought, put in
his most business-like way. If a sermon is pre-
pared for those who are fond of some special
type of thought or method of discourse, it is
hkely to miss the youth; but not if it is a vital
utterance of substantial truth addressed to serious
men and women. That is all youth asks, for
it is what youth loves. "^
* McKinley, "Educational Evangelism," p. 193.
Here is a Six Foot Shelf of 103 books and
pamphlets written about boys or subjects analo-
gous to boy life. There are scores of other
books printed upon the subject equally good,
but the author found these to be especially
helpful and can therefore commend them to
students of "Boyology" and parents.
Books op a General Character for Parents
Kirtley, James S. "That Boy of Yours." New York:
George H. Doran Co., 1912.
A series of sympathetic studies of boyhood.
Beck, Frank Orman. "Marching Manward." New
York: Eaton & Mains, 1913.
A plea for the boy, not simply a chronicle of his doings.
Forbush, William Byron. "The Boy Problem in the
Home." Boston: The Pilgrim Press, 1915.
<h ' Dealing solely with home government, sex discipline, and re-
Forbush, William Byron. "Guide Book to Childhood."
Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co., 1916.
An encyclopedia of 557 pages on child training.
Clark, Kate Upson. "Bringing up Boys." New York:
Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1899.
A book of old fashioned, therefore, good common sense.
Abbott, Ernest Hamlin. "On the Training of Parents."
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1908.
Good sound advice to parents, written in a witty way, yet
filled with sound reasoning.
Burbank, Luther. "The Training of the Human Plant."
New York: The Century Co., 1912.
An interesting study of similarity between the organization
and development of plant and human life.
Herrick, Christine Terhune. "My Boy and I." Boston:
Dana Estes & Co., 1913.
A chronicle of incidents occurring in the home life of nor-
Moon, E. L. "The Contents of the Boy." New York:
Eaton & Mains, 1909.
Full of helpful suggestions of a practical character.
Dickinson, George A., M.D. "Your Boy, His Nature and
Nurture." New York: Hodder & Stoughton.
A plea for a better understanding of the real, healthy, nor-
Wood, Mary Buell. "Just Boys." New York: Fleming
H. Revell Co., 1909.
West, Paul. "Just Boy." New York: George H. Doran
Tarkington, Booth. "Penrod." New York: Doubleday,
Page & Co., 1914.
Tarkington, Booth. "Seventeen." New York: Harper
& Company, 1916.
Four books to take up and read when you are tired and dis-
couraged, e8i)ecially if you are the parent of a real, lively, imag-
inative boy between thirteen and seventeen years of age.
Mothers in particular should become members of "The
American Institute of Child Life." William Byron For-
bush. President, 1764 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
The books and pamphlets printed and issued by the
Institute are valuable in helping parents solve the many
daily problems of the home life.
Hall, G. Stanley. "Adolescence." Two vols. New York:
D. Appleton & Company, 1905.
An exhaustive study of Adolescence, its psychology and ita
relation to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime,
religion, and education.
Hall, G. Stanley. "Youth: Its Education, Regimen and
-^-i Hygiene." New York: D. Appleton & Company,
An epitomized edition of "Adolescence."
Tyler, John Mason. "Growth and Education." Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1907.
Gives an account of the growth of all the systems in the nor-
mal or average child and its relation to educational problems.
Kirkpatrick, Edwin A. "Fundamentals of Child Study."
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915.
A discussion of the instincts and other factors in human de-
velopment with practical application.
Hubbell, George Allen. "Up Through Childhood." New
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904.
A study of some principles of education in relation to Faith
and Conduct. (Out of priat; may be seen in Ubraries.)
Swift, Edgar James. "Youth and the Race." New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912.
Attempts to show how the schools ma3j help to transform into
intellectual and moral forces the racial instincts which, as man-
ifesting original sin, distressed our forefathers.
Swift, Edgar James. "Mind in the Making." New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908.
A study in mental development and a plea for the personal
element in education.
Forbush, William Byron. "The Coming Generation."
New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1912.
Deals with the betterment of boys and girls in their homes
by means of a fair start through education, through preventative
measures, through religious and social nurture.
James, William. "Talks to Teachers." New York: Henry
Holt & Co., 1906.
Chapters on psychology and some of life's ideals.
Thorndike, Edward Lee. "Notes on Child Study." New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1903.
Especially prepared for teachers and originally used in the
author's classes at Columbia University.
Warner, Francis. "The Study of Children." New York:
The Macmillan Co., 1.902.
A study of brain-power and m(»ntal expression. It is a descrip-
tion of the author's personal observation covering a period
of twenty years.
King, Irving. "The Psychology of Child Development."
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1911.
Psychology from a genetic-functional standpoint is expounded
and illustrated. The author attempts to give a solution of the
controversy about the relationship of child and adult psychology.
Barnes, Earl. "The Psychology of Childhood and Youth."
New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1914.
The outlines of thirty lectures given by Mr. Barnes, and con-
taining the results of the more recent individual and group
studies on the physical, mental, moral, social, sesthetic, and
religious life of Childhood and Youth.
Fiske, George Walter. "Boy Life and Self Government."
New York: Association Press, 1910.
A sympathetic interpretation of boy life and a plea for self-
expression and self-government among older boys.
Burr, Hanford M. "Studies in Adolescent Boyhood."
Springfield: Seminar Publishing Co., 1907.
The conclusions of physiologists and psychologists applied to
practical education and philanthropy.
Taylor. A. R. "The. Study of the Child." New York:
D. Appleton & Co., 1910.
A brief treatise on the psychology of the child, written in plain
language and remarkably free from technical terms and scien-
McKeever, William A. "Outlines of Child Study."
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1915.
Contains 112 programs and the plan of organization and man-
agement of Child Study Clubs.
Patrick, G. T. W. "Psychology of Relaxation." Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1916.
A book showing how the higher nerve centers find relief from
the unaccustomed demands of civilization. Contents: The
Psychology of Play, of Laughter, of Profanity, of Alcohol,
Mark. H. Thiselton. "The Unfolding of Personality."
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1912.
A study of some of the main bearings of psychology upon
education in the light of the constantly developing life of the
A safe book of instruction upon sex matters which can
be put in the hands of a boy for reading, has not yet been
published. The books given in the following list are
recommended to parents for their own information and
digestion, so that they may become the instructors of their
own boys by word of mouth rather than by the printed
Chadwick, Dr, M. L. "Blossom Babies." New York:
Eaton & Mains, 1913.
A series of nature stories to tell little children, through which
the great story of life may be taught. A book of beginnings.
Howard, Dr. William Lee. "Start Your Child Right.**
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1910.
Confidential talks to parents and teachers which point out
clearly what should be taught children.
Smart, Dr. I. Thompson. "What a Father Should Tell
His Little Boy," "What a Father Should Tell
His Son." New York: Funk & Wagnalls Co.,
Two small books written in the form of letters to boys which
it is questionable if boys would understand; yet the books
are full of good suggestions, showing the way of approach to
Chapman, Mrs. Woodallen. "How Shall I Tell My
Child?" New York: Fleming H. Revcll Co., 1912.
A mother's viewpoint, written in practical style and whole-
some in tone.
Bisseker, H. "When a Boy Becomes a Man." New
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1913.
Accurate and scientific information to give to boys who are
in their teens.
Willson, Dr. Robert N. "The Education of the Young
in Sex Hygiene." Published by the author,
1913. 1827 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
An exhaustive text book for parents and teachers. Written
from a medical and moral standpoint.
Hall, Dr. Winfield S. "From Youth into Manhood,'*
"Reproduction and Sex Hygiene." New York:
Association Press, 1909.
Two well known and extensively endorsed books which every
parent and teacher should possess.
Pamphlets: "The Boy Problem," "The Young Man's
Problem," "How my Uncle, the Doctor, In-
stnicted Me in Matters of Sex." Published by
the American Society of Sanitary and Moral
Prophylaxis, N. Y.
Three pamphlets of an educational nature and written in a
clear and sane manner.
Pamphlets: "John's Vacation" (for boys from 10 to 15),
"Chums" (for boys from 16 to 18). Published
by the American Medical Association, 536 Dear-
born Street, Chicago.
Written in story form by Dr. WinBeld S. Hall. Full of in-
terest and scientific facts.
Weaver, E. W. "Profitable Vocations for Boys." New
York: Association Press, 1915.
A book describing the various trades, professions, and occupa-
tions, prepared with the idea of directing a boy's attention
to the vocational facilities in bis community, and showing
him how to utilize them.
Babson. Roger W. "The Future of Us Boys." Boston:
Babson's Statistical Organization, 1915.
A most \inique description of a plan of introducing boys to
the industries of their city and a method of analyzing the
comparative value of each occupation.
Fowler, Nathaniel C, Jr. "The Boy— How to Help
Him to Succeed." Boston: Oakwood Pub. Co.,
Symposium of successful experiences of many men. Written
in common sense style and very practical.
Parsons, Frank. "Choosing a Vocation." Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909.
Written by the originator of the "vocational guidance" idea
for those who desire to be of real help to a perplexed boy.
Snedden, David. "The Problem of Vocational Education."
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1910.
A monograph showing the relation of the public school sys-
tem to the problem of vocational education.
Eliot. Charles W. "Education for Efficiency." Boston:
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909.
A definition of the cultivated man.
Bloomfield, Meyer. "The Vocational Guidance of Youth."
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1909.
A practical book for parents.
Robinson, Clarence C. "The Wage Earning Boy." New
York: Association Press, 1912.
An interesting study of the boy who works and a plea for his
Griggs, Edward Howard. "Self Culture Through the
Vocation." New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1914.
A little classic showing how life is something more than making
Sunday School and Church Work
Schauffler, A. F. "God's Book and God's Boy." New
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1915.
Helpful teaching suggestions based upon common sense and
Rishell, Charles W. "The Child as God's Child." New
York: Eaton & Mains, 1904.
A plea for the religious rights of the child.
St. John, Edward Porter. "Child Nature and Child
Nurture." Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1911.
Particularly adapted as a text-book for the study of child life
and the training of yoimg children.
Layard, Ernest B. "Religion in Boyhood." New York:
E. P. Dutton and Co., 1896.
Hints for the religious training of boys. Especially helpful
Starbuck, Edwin B. "The Psychology of Religion."
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900.
The author calls the book "an empirical study of the growth
of religious consciousness." A book for the student of religion.
McKinley, Charles E. "Educational Evangelism." Bos-
ton: Pilgrim Press, 1905.
A book which shoxild be read by every teacher of boys who
are in the teen age.
Burton and Mathews. "Principles and Ideals for the
Sunday School." Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1907.
Written with the idea of widening the horizon of Simday school
teachers and introducing better methods of biblical study.
Lectures: "Principles of Religious Education." New
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 190L
The Christian Knowledge course of lectures by many prom-
inent clergymen and laymen upon religious education.
Men and Religion Messages: "Boys' Work in the Sunday
School." New York: Association Press, 1912.
Prepared by a commission which incorporated the best ex-
perience and practice in work among church boys in this volume.
Alexander, John L. "The Boy and the Sunday School."
New York: Association Press, 1913.
A compendium of methods for work among older boys in the
Alexander, John L. "The Sunday School and the Teens.'*
New York: Association Press, 1913.
The rei>ort of the Commission on Adolescence authorized by
the International Sunday School Association. Contains the
latest findings as to how to deal with adolescents.
McKinney, A. H. "Our Big Boys and the Sunday School."
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.. 1910.
Particularly helpful to teachers.
Weigle, Luther A. "The Pupil and the Teacher." New
York: George H. Doran Co., 1911.
A text-book for teacher training classes.
Mark. H. Thiselton. "The Teacher and the Child.'*
New York: Fleming H. Revell Co.. 1903.
A rare and stimulating combination of theory and practice.
McCormick, William. "Fishers of Boys." New York:
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1915.
Written by a newspaper man who has given years of service
to boys' work. It is written in an informal and interesting
Richardson and Loomis. "The Boy Scout Movement
Applied by the Church." Charles Scribner's
A handbook for Scout Masters of Church boys' troops- A
real contribution toward the solving of a deUcate church problem.
Quin. Rev. George E. "The Boy-Saver's Guide." New
York: Benziger Brothers. 1908.
A book of methods used by a successful Catholic priest in his
work among the boys of his parish.
Hoben, Allan. "The Minister and the Boy." Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1912.
A book of practical value to ministers who are really desirous
of understanding and helping the boys of their parish.
Foster, Eugene C. "The Boy and the Church." Phila-
delphia: Sunday School Times Co., 1909.
One of the best books upon this subject.
Forbush, William Byron. "Church Work with Boys."
Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1910.
Designed as a text-book for classes of men who are preparing
to be of service among boys.
Hartshorne, Hugh. "Worship in the Sunday School."
New York: Teachers College of Columbia Uni-
A comprehensive and thoughtful study of the theory and
practice of worship.
Hartshorne, Hugh. "The Book of Worship of the Sunday
School." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
Meant to be used by the Sunday school as a book of worship.
Contains responses, prayers, hymns, etc.
Hartshorne, Hugh. "Manual for Training in Worship."
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915.
For pastors, superintendents, organists, and those who are
desirous of making the "opening exercises" of the Sunday
school more devotional and inspiring.
Gibson, H. W. "Services of Worship for Boys." New
York: Association Press, 1914.
A book of topically arranged services of hymns, prayers, and
Hunting, Harold B. "The Story of the Bible." New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915.
Fascinatingly written and sure to hold the attention of boys.
Gives the story of how we got oxir English Bible.
Plat and Games
Johnson, George E. "Education by Play and Games."
Boston: Ginn & Company, 1907.
Discusses the meaning of play and gives a suggestive course
of plays and games graded from infancy to the middle teens.
Lee, Joseph. "Play in Education." New York: The
Macmillan Co., 1915.
A true picture of the child and youth in play, written by a sym-
pathetic observer and champion of child liie.
Hoffman, M. C. "Games for Everybody." New York:
Dodge Pub. Co., 1905.
Full of choice games for all occasions.
Baker, G. Cornelius. "Indoor Games and Socials for
Boys." New York: Association Press, 191S.
Contains hundreds of roUicking good games and socials espe-
cially adapted for boys.
Heath, L. M. "Eighty Good Times Out of Doors." New
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1902.
Attractive and easy games for playing out of doors at all seasons
of the year. (Out of print; may be seen in libraries.)
Chesley, A. M. "Social Activities for Men and Boys."
New York: Association Press, 1910.
Two hundred and ninety-five interesting suggestions and
•'stunts" for the relief of those who are searching for things
Gibson, H. W. "Camping for Boys." New York: Asso-
ciation Press, 1911.
Contains chapters on "Rainy Day Games," "Campus Qsmes,"
"Water Sports," etc.
Cheley-Baker. "Camp and Outing Activities." New
York: Association Press, 1915.
The best book of its kind for camp leaders and Scout Masters
who have active boys in search of fun and harmless sport.
Hyde, William DeWitt. "The Quest of the Best." New
York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.. 1913.
An original and stimulating discussion upon boy ethics.
Johnson, Franklin W. "The Problems of Boyhood."
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1914.
A course in ethics for boys of the High School age. *
Pearson, Edmund L. "The Believing Years." New
York: The Macmillan Co., 1911.
A book of recollections of boyhood. Full oi humor and re-
freshing in style.
White, William Allen. "The Court of Boyville." New
York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1910.
Hiunorous stories of happenings to boys in a country town.
Travis, Thomas. "The Young Malefactor." New York:
Thomas Y. Crowell Co.. 1908.
The best study published in juvenile delinquency, its causes
Addams, Jane. "The Spirit of Youth and the City
Streets." New York: The Macmillan Co., 1909.
A plea for the social claims and needs of youth for wholesome
Clopper, Edward N. "Child Labor in the City Streets."
New York: The Macmillan Co., 1912.
A discussion of a neglected form of child labor, its conditions,
its causes, and its effects.
Buck, Winifred. "Boys' Self Governing Clubs." New
York: The Macmillan Co.. 1903.
A very practical treatise upon the organization of clubs among
boys of the streets.
McCormick, William. "The Boy and His Clubs." New
York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.
Written out of a rich experience with all kinds of boys' clubs.
He tells the "why" and "how" in as few words as possible.
Stelzle, Charles. "Boys of the Streets." New York:
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1904.
The author was niimber "8" in the famous St. Mark's Boys'
Club of New York City, and is therefore qualified to champion
the claims of this type of imperiled boy.
Russell and Rigby. "Working Lads' Clubs." London:
The Macmillan Co., 1908.
A presentation of the management of English Lads' clubs.
Merrill, Dr. Lilburn. "Winning the Boy." New York:
Fleming H. Revell Co., 1908.
A plea for misunderstood boys.
Taylor, Charles K. "Character Development." Phila-
delphia: John C. Winston Co., 1913.
A practical graded school course correlating lessons in physical
training, general morals, vocational guidance, etc.
Taylor, Charles K. "The Physical Examination and
Training of Children." Philadelphia: John C.
Winston Co., 1914.
A handbook for physical directors, teachers, parents, and
medical inspectors, giving in minute detail the physical train-
ing work outlined in "Character Development."
The Personal Service Bureau conducted by the Mothers*
Magazine, Elgin, 111., is a clearing house under the direc-
tion of Prof. M. V. O'Chea, of the University of Wis-
consin, for modern mothers. Programs and loan papers
upon every phase of child study and child training have
been prepared and will be furnished free to interested
parents and Mothers' Clubs. "A Key to Child Training"
is a valuable pamphlet issued by the Bureau.
Acceleration of growth 5
Action, a law of boy-
Adolescence, Report of
Committee on 27
Adolescence and com-
Advice to smokers .... 24
Affection, Instinct of . . 74
Age of accountability. . 5
Age of conversion 119
Age of deepest religious
Aim of moral instruc-
Altruism 92, 97
Altruistic feeling 78
Amusements, Q u e s-
tionnaire on 11
Analysis of human
Analyzing a boy 170
Ancestor worship 206
Appeal of conscience . . 106
Appeal of religion 117
Art and adolescence. . . 196
Assimilative power. ... 16
Athletics, Dangers of.. 19
Athletics, Goal of 20
Attitude of boys to-
ward Church mem-
Authority, Parental ... 39
Authority, Respect for 39
Aversion toward the
Awakening conscience . 4
Baraca classes 262
Beatitudes for church
tion of 1
Beer drinking 21
Beer drinking among
Betting and gambling . 113
Bible study, Y. M. C.
Big boys and the Sun-
day school 226
Blood pressure. . .8, 71, 173
Boarding houses 90
Body, Anatomy of. . . . 172
" Constituent ele-
ments of 171
" Muscular energy
" the servant of
the mind .... 29
Books on vocational
Books, Sex instruction
Boyhood of Jesus 6
Boyless churches and
churchless boys 252
Boys and literature ; . . 37
Boys and vocational
Boys* Department in
the Sunday school . . 246
Boy's philosophy of life 15
Boy's room in the home 87
Boy Scout on Wall
Boy's trousers pockets 141
Brain impressions 195
Brain, Racking of 14
Brain, Weight of 30
Breathing, Deep IS, 27
" during sleep 15
" through the
mouth. ... 14
" through the
Business ethics of boy-
Busy fathers 219
Buying the b o y's
Camp fires 61,124
Camps help Christian
Carpets and boys 218
Cerebellum and cere-
Cerebro-spinal system . 32
Characteristics of ado-
lescence . 162, 163, 164, 165
Characteristics of child-
Character and food. .. 19
Chest, Enlarging the . . 13
Chest, Girth of 8
Chewing of food 17
"Children's heads are
Chivalry. . 201
Choral singing 95
Choosing a vocation
Chumminess 74, 219
Church and adoles-
cence 27, 97, 239
Church attendance. . . . 252
Church membership. . .
113, 119, 132, 239
Church, Play life a
challenge to the .... 18
Church services 264
Churches, Seating ca-
pacity of 252
Churchless boys and
boyless churches. . . . 252
Cigarets and educa-
Cigarets and moral
among students .... 23
Cigaret smoking and
Citizens in the making 84
Civil law vs. moral
Civil war fought by
Cleanliness of body . . 10, 27
Cleanliness, Moral. 109, 112
Clean speech campaign 193
Codes of conduct 69
Cold bathing 10
College, Boys who go
College yell 216
Companions 69, 85, 97
Company manners. . . . 215
tion vs. community
Competition in sports
and games 3
Conscience .... 97, 103,
106, 112, 115, 127
of the body 171
Control, Habit of 103
Control, Instinctive. . . 102
Control, Judgment and 103
Conversion 119, 128
form of. 95
Coordination of mo-
tion and emotion. . . 34
in Sunday school
Cost of wrong doing. . . 182
Creation of ideals 43
Creative powers .... 43, 154
Crime, Time of great-
Cultural side of educa-
Dangers of athletics. . . 19
Decision for Christian
Decrease of sickness. . . 3, 8
Defective imagination . 39
Delinquent boys 118
Desire for fellowship . 83, 84
Desire, Function of . . . 106
Digestive apparatus. . . 10
Dirt and noise . 117, 215, 218
Dirty stories 72
Discipline 2, 68
Discipline, Moral 43
Discipline and charac-
ter formation 42
Discontent, Spirit of.. 147
Disease and mind 12
Disease and tobacco, . 23
Divorce and the home. 206
Doing a good turn .... 94
Dust hunters vs. home
Ear, The 194
Eating, The art of 6, 17
through smoking ... 24
side of 154
Education and cigarets 23
Education, Social 86
Education, Value of. . . 148
Education, Visualized .
EflSciency, Instinct of . 77
Ego period .42,69
Emotional instincts ... 65
Energy, Harnessing of. 4
Energy, Moral 104
Energy, Physical 172
Esoteric instinct 93
Ethical period 126
Ethics taught through
Example, Power of . . . . 79
Exit mother and enter
Eye, The care of the . . 4
Eye, Wonders of the . . 194
Faith 122. 127
Family, The 110,112
" meal. The so-
ue of 90
" quarreling. . . . 214
" worship 221
Father and son. Firm
Father's opportunity , .
6, 26, 181
Fear an educational
Feeling. . . 29, 63, 64, 70, 127
Feelings, Hurt 63
First impressions . . 124, 243
First shave. The 179
Food and character. . . 17
Food, Chewing of 17
Formation of habits . . 40
Freedom to decide 146
Finger nails 10
Fresh air 9
Friendships 69, 85,
124, 146, 175, 183
Functioning 77, 127
Fun and mischief 117
Fun of living 15
Function of desire. ... 106
Function of worship. . . 133
Gambling and betting . 113
Gang leadership 97
97, 226, 233
Gangs, Study of 86
Generous impulses..!" 128
Glee clubs 95
Goal of athletics 20
God, A boy's concep-
tion of 79
God and nature 124
Go-to-Church band . . . 255
Go- to-Church Sunday . 251
Growth, Accelerat ion
in chest 5
in height 5,71
in legs ....... 7
in weight 5
and nutrition. 16
and sleep 13
Grow time 169
" control 103
** and character . . 41
" Formation of. 40, 486
Habits, Mental and
Harnessing energy .... 9
Health creed 27
Heart hunger 118
" as a pump 173
" strain 19
" Weight of 7
Heroism 117, 127
Hero worship 79, 126
High School fraterni-
Holyoke plan 246
Home a school of
Home a social center . . 89
Home and public
schools 144, 199
Home life 74,87,
H o m e-making vs.
house-keeping 89, 218
Home, Peril of 90,205
Home sickness 217
Home the foundation
of society 204
Homeless boys 217
Hotel vs. home 90
Hours of sleep 14
Hours of work 14
Hot house forcing of
boys 25, 38
Hurt feelings 63
Ideals, Creation of ... . 43
Ignorance of badness . . 101
Imagination 34, 35, 1 18
Imagination, Defective 39
Immature powers 1
Impressionistic period. 122
Impulse, Blind 2
Increased girth 8
Indulgent parents .... 13
Industrialism, Sunday . 231
school teaching 227
Insanity through drink 20
Instinct of afiFection ... 74
Instinct of aversion to-
ward the strange. ... 69
Instinct of dependence 80
Instinct of efficiency . . 77
Instinct of fear 66
Instinct of inner free-
Instinct of positive and
negative self feeling. 76
Instinct of reverence . . 78
Instinct of sex 76
Instinct of surprise. ... 80
Instinct of sympathy. . 77
Instinct of wonder .... 80
Instinct of worship .121, 254
Instinctive control .... 102
Instincts, Emotional . : 66
of morals 102
Interpreters of boy-
Inward rebellion 176
Irregularity of sleep. . . 13
Jesus, Boyhood of ... . 6
Judgment control 103
Justice 11, 110
Juvenile courts 186, 207
Juvenile delinquency. .
Kidneys 10, 13
Knights of King Arthur
"Know Yourself Cam-
Language the vehicle
of thought 46
Leadership 96, 176
Leadership of gang. ... 97
"League of Worshiping
Leaving school 152
Likes and dislikes 143
Liquor, Decrease of
consumption of 22
Lonely age 118
Long sermons and long
Long trouser period. . .
Love a social feeling. . . 74
Love in action 43
Love of home 204
Loyalty 126, 182
Lungs 10, 13, 173
Making a living vs.
making a life 156, 217
Making things 140
Manners 109, 215
Mannishness vs. man-
Maxims of life 108
Meal, The family 90
Medulla oblongata. ... 32
Medullary sheath 32
Memory 43, 104, 183
Memorizing 44, 45
Mental habits 40
Mental photography . . 194
Mental turmoil 134
Mind, a picture gal-
Mind, Reasoning power
Minister, Assistants to
Ministers and the boys 259
Ministers' sermons to
Mischief and fun 117
Misfits on society. . . 84, 136
Misunderstood boys, .
"Model" boy 177
Modern sensationalism 230
Modern skepticism. . . . 232
Moral characteristics. . 100
" colorblindness.. 114
" culture 84
" destruction. . . . 101
" deterioration ... 39
" discipline 43
" energy 104
** instruction. Aim
of. . 103
** instruction for
boys 12 to 14. 109
** instruction for
boys 14 to 16. 110
" instruction for
boys 16 to 19. 112
" judgment 101
" law vs. civil law 105
** qualities 62
** teaching. Home
as the school
Morality, A growth
from within 100
Morality, A rational
basis for 109
Morals, Religious base
Morbus Sabbaticus . . . 250
Mother and her oppo-
sition to boy friends. 88
Mother and uplift so-
Mother buying the
boy's clothes 180
Mother love 200
Mothers' Congress. . . . 200
Mother's opportunity. 122
Motion pictures 231
Mouth breathing 5, 14
Muscle and morals. . . . 104
Muscular virtues and
Muscles, Involuntary. 11
Music 43, 44, 95,97
Narrowmindedness. ... 96
Nasal passages 10, 15
Nature and God 124
Nature and nurture . . . 170
Nature worship 125
Neglected boyhood. ... 84
Need of vocational
Nervo - muscular sys-
Nervous fathers 216
4, 13, 14, 30, 32, 33, 173
Newspaper route 141
Noise and dirt 117,215
Number of young men
in U. S . 39
Nutrition and growth . / 16
Obedience . 7 . . .t. 107
Older boys. Responsi-
bility of 113
Open hearth 51
Order. . 110
Organization for boys . 245
school classes 245
Pairing tendency 85
Parental ambition . 145, 205
Parental authority. . . ,
39, 42, 89, 207
88, 192, 204, 207, 214, 220
Parental respect 215
Parents, Indulgent. ... 13
Parents and sex in-
struction. . .187, 190, 197
Parents and the Sun-
day school 228
Patriotism 110, 111. 112
Peace and war. . . . Ill, 112
Pelvic organs 13
Peril of the home. . .90, 205
Period of doubt 42
Period of misunder-
Personal habits 40
Personal relationship to
Personality, The boy's.
Personality of leaders.
104, 228, 239, 241
Phi Alpha Pi fraternity 93
Physical examinations . 20
Physical laziness 38
Physical struggle and
Physical weaknesses. . . 103
Pictures, The appeal of
Pin feather age 179
Play a school of ethics 18
Play a social adjuster. 90
Play and work 92
Play life a challenge to
the Church 18
Playing store 141
Pleasure of work 89
Power of example .... 79
Power of observation. . 4
Power of suggestion. . . 36
Preparation for life . . 83, 90
Principles relating to
self, society, and hu-
Progressive education. 30
Prohibition of the sale
of vodka 21
Psychical elements. ... 4
Public schools and the
Public schools and sex
Public schools and re-
ligious instruction. . . 224
Punishment 68, 71. 105
on amusements 11
Questionnaire on books
and magazines 52
Questionnaire on father 211
Questionnaire on habit 253
Questionnaire on how a
minister can help a
boy . . 260
Questionnaire on join-
ing the church 258
on mother 209
Questionnaire on sex
instruction 187, 189
Questionnaire on slang 47
Questionnaire on Sun-
day school attend-
Questionnaire on vo-
cational desire 138
Questionnaire on why
boys don't go to
Questionnaire on why
boys go to Sunday
Questions, A boy's ....
6, 14, 207
Rapid eating 17
Rational basis for mor-
Reasoning power of
Rebellion, Inward .... 177
Recreation 1, 111, 113
Reform schools 207
Regulative principles.. 108
Religion as motive
Religion the base of
Religious awakening. .
Religious clarification. 118
Religious expression. . .
Religious feeling 8
Religious instruction . . 233
and the public schools 224
Religious observance . . 1 18
Reproductive organs . . 7
Respect for authority. 39
Respect for others .... 108
Respect jfor self. 108, 110, 113
39, 92, 113, 182
Reverence, Instinct of . 78
Right thinking 41
Room, A boy's 87
Sabbath observance . 80, 230
Savings banks in Rus-
School, Boys' leaving. .
143, 148, 152
School yell 216
Self centered boys .... 82
feeling. Instinct of 76
respect. . .108,110,113
Sensitiveness to social
Sensori-motor system. . 30
Sensory centers 33
Sensuous growth. Pe-
riod of 101
127, 229, 244
Servantized boys 220
Services of worship. . . .
249, 259, 264
Sex instinct 76
Sex instruction .... 25,
26, 187, 189, 196
Shave, The first 179
Sickness, Decrease of. . 3, 8
Singing, a universal
Singing, Church 95
Skedaddling from Sun-
day school 223
Skepticism, Modern. . . 232
Slang expressions .... 46, 47
Sleep and growth .... 13, 14
Sleep, Breathing dur-
Sleep, Hours of 14
Sleep, Irregularity of . . 13
Smoking and beer
Smoking and economic
Social center. The boy's
room a 87
Social education 86
Social initiative 90
Social instincts 84, 97
Social organizations. . .
94, 110, 112
Social relationships. . . 113
Social service. . .92, 113, 114
Socializing value of the
family meal 90
Spinal cord and mar-
Spirit of discontent , . . 149
Spiritualization of work 156
Stages of religious ex-
pression 122, 240
Stemming the tide 236
Stifled emotions 80
Strong motor and sen-
sor temperaments. . , 65
Struggle for manhood . 134
Storm and stress pe-
riod 63, 128
Study of gangs 86
Suggestion, Power of . . 36
Sunday newspaper . . . 230
Sunday school activi-
Sunday school and
adolescence. . 27, 119,
134, 152, 223, 233
Sunday school and big
Sunday school and
Sunday school and
week day activities. 234
Sunday School Ath-
letic League 19, 242
Sunday school Boys'
Sunday school indus-
Sunday school lessons . 233
Sunday school teachers 120
Surprise, Instinct of. . . 80
Sweating tubes 10
Swimming 11, 13
Syllabus of moral in-
Sympathetic system.33, 197
Sympathy, Instinct of . 77
Teacher training insti-
Sunday school 227
Team work 91
Temperature of body. . 7, 8
Temperance in drink . . 112
and strong motor . . 64, 65
and strong sensor ... 65
Tendencies to conduct. 102
The Church, the
preacher, the ser-
mon, and the boy. . . 250
The greatest criminal
in history 20
The language of the
The three modern
The teen period 7
Thinking right 41,176
Thought life of a boy. .
25, 115, 185
Three wise monkeys of
Tight fitting clothing. . 15
Time of conversion. ... 119
Time of crime 119, 186
Time of uniting with
the church 119
Tobacco and disease . . 23
Unfolding of personal-
Uniting with the
Value of an education .
Vertebral column 33
Virile qualities 7
Virtue and vice 15
Visualized education . . 153
Vocation, Choosing a. .
tics . 137
Vocational schools .... 152
Voluntary human ac-
Vulgar show bills 193
War and peace. . . .111, 112
Willculture....39, 111, 113
Will, The 139,155
Wine drinking 21
Wonder, Instinct of . . . 80
Work and play 92
Work, Hours of 14
Work. Pleasure of. .39, 157
Worship, Family 221
Worship, FunctioQ of. . 133
Worship, Instinct of. 121, 154
Worship and nature.. . 124
Wrong doing 102
W u n d t ' 8 regulative
Index of Authors
Addison, Joseph 243
Alexander, John L . . . . 245
Baden-Powell. Sir Rob-
ert S. S 94
Baines. E. W 23
Beck, F. 7.91,107
Begbie, Harold 103
Black, Hugh 85
Bok, Edward 38
Bosworth, E. 1 221
Burdette, Robert 24
Burr, H. M 47
Butler, Prof 104
Carroll, H.K 252
Chad wick. Dr. M.
Coe, George A 101
Cook, Joseph 45
Corsan, George H . . . . 13
Craig, T. A 182
Curtis, John W 153
De Garmo, Charles. . . 108
De Motte, John B 201
Dennis, Doctor 23
Dewey, John 106
Dexter and Garlick . . . 105
Eliot, Charles W 41
Faunce, W. N 224
Fisher, George J., M.D. 103
Fosbroke, Gerald E . . . 176
Fowler, Nathaniel, Jr. .
Freeman, James M. . . . 195
Gladstone, William E. . 41
Green, Reuben, M.D.. 14
Hall, G. Stanley
11, 14, 18, 46, 51,
71, 96, 119, 196,
Hoben, Allan 259, 261
Home, H. H 240
Hubbell, George Allen .
45, 46. 170
James, William. . .40, 41, 84
Johnson, G. E 83
Johnson, Marietta L. . 149
Kirkpatrick, E. A 30
Kirtley, James S . . 4, 6,
10, 17, 35, 75, 87, 121
Kress. D. H.. M.D.... 24
Latimer, Hugh 220
Lockwood, John Hor-
Longfellow, Henry W. 21
Lord, Everett W 143
Luther, Martin 124
McElfresh, Franklin . . 241
McKeever, William A . 155
McKinley, Charles E. .
76, 248, 263
Harden, Orison Swett. 151
Mark, H. Thistleton . .
30, 63, 66, 69, 74
Markham, Edwin 156
Mayo, Hon. John W . . 214
Merrill, Lilburn, M. D. 74
Mill, John Stuart 41
Moxom, Philip A 115
Oppenheim, James. . . . 206
Puffer, J. Adam 86
Raflfety, W. E 43
Ribot, Th 66,73
Riis, Jacob E 140
Roarke, Prof 37
Robson, Frank 101
Rosenkrantz, Dr 84
Rosenufif. Dr 20
Ruskin, John 44
St. John, E. P 78
Scott, Collin A 114
See, Edwin F 40
Sheldon, D 86
Snedden, David 154
Starbuck, E. D.... 118, 128
Stead, W.T 128
Swift, Edgar J 86
Tarkington, Booth 177
Taylor, Charles K 19
Tyler, J. M 7,8,9,
33, 34, 72, 127, 128
Tyndall, John 194
Van Dyke, Henry 90
Votaw, Prof 132
Warner, Francis 14
Weigle, Luther A ... .84, 93
Werner, Carl 181
Wilson, R. N., M.D... 25
Wundt, W. M 107
FiBST Lines of Poetby
'A Cathedral, boundless as our wonder" 124
'A creed is a rod." Hyde 136
'As each new life is given to the world" 247
*At night returning, every laborer sped." Goldsmith 204
*At the terrible door of your beautiful sin." Morgan 202
'Brother, save the boy." Raffety 234
•Doth not the soul the body sway" 114
'Do you know that your soul is of my soul such part" 200
'Earth's future glory and its hopes and joys" 183
'Flower in the crannied wall." Tennyson ... * 169
"For there are moments in life when the heart is so
full of emotion." Longfellow 63
**Give the boy a hammer." Chicago News 140
"Give us men." Bishop of Exeter 98
"He was a dog, but he stayed at home." London
S. S. Times. 208
"How beautiful is youth! how bright it gleams."
"Hurry the baby as fast as you can." Waterman. . . 26
"I am a child — oh, do not tie me up to schools."
"It is good to have money" 220
"It takes a soul." Mrs. Browning 96
"I want a hero." Blackie 80
"Know thyself as the Lord of the chariot" 62
"Let me but do my work from day to day." Van
"Life's more than breath." Baily 100
"Man am I grown." Tennyson 223
"Mind is the master power that moulds and makes."
"Mum always makes me mad clean through." Daly 180
"Oh, the joy of measured strength." Sterns 3
"Oh the years we waste and the tears we waste" .... 214
"Onc't they was a little boy." Riley 67
"Ram it in, jam it in." London Post 31
"Seek to shape it outwardly" 74
*'Sow a thought and reap a deed." Hale 41
"There are hermit souls that live withdrawn." Foss 82
*'There is a tide in the affairs of men." Shakespeare 108
"There's a breathless hush in the Close tonight."
"The world has work for us." Allerton 137
**To thine own self be true." Shakespeare 108
"Two great, strong arms; a merry way." B. E. W. . 221
"Wall Street rang and echoed with its traffic" 37
"We teach and teach" ^ 241
"When from the field of mimic strife" 73
"When the fight begins within himself." Browning.. 100
"Where have I come from." Tagore 197
"Who builds in boys builds lastingly in truth" 28
"You hear that boy laughing" 117
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